Rossi Blog Reader

This website tracks recent postings to Andrea Rossi's Journal of Nuclear Physics, sorting the entries with priority to Rossi's answers, which appear under each question.


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• Updated: 2018-08-17 01:30:09.728210Z

  1. TOUSSAINT francois

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    I wish you a great success with this first 40 Mw plant, and there will be many more to come !
    Is there still an important test this august with the SK E-CAT ?

    Warm Regards

    Toussaint françois

  2. Andrea Rossi

    Toussaint Francois:
    Thank you for your kind wishes. Yes, an extremely important test will be made at the end of August through the first 10 days of September. After that, strategic decisions will have to be made.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  3. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Do you already have all the necessary authorizations to install and operate the 40 MW plant?

    Kind regards,

    Frank Acland

  4. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Our Customer is dealing with this issue. We have the necessary safety certification already done and all our plant’s components are certified. Locally certified engineers are dealing with specific licenses.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  5. Dear Andrea,

    Whenever there is a high motivation of reaching some goal, there is a risk of overdoing. For example in the Mel Brooks movie “To be or not to be”, the main character is a professional actor who gets into a situation that he must enter local Gestapo office and credibly play a Nazi officer, for he and his companions to be saved (http://www.script-o-rama.com/movie_scripts/t/to-be-or-not-to-be-script.html):

    -Delighted to meet you.
    -What?
    -I’m rehearsing: “Delighted to meet you.”
    -You’re playing for our lives.
    -I’ll give my greatest performance.
    -Don’t. Just be good.

    Applied to the E-cat case: Don’t make the plant a magnificence, just make it good.

    Or (attributed to Voltaire): “Better is the enemy of good.”

    It sounds blunt and unfair, but it’s general advice whose rationale becomes clear after thinking about it.

    Good Regards, /pekka

  6. Andrea Rossi

    Pekka Janhunen:
    “…don’t. Just be good…”
    He,he,he..thank you for the suggestion!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  7. CC

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Are you making any sport during your vacations? Your health is important.
    Cheers
    CC

  8. Andrea Rossi

    CC:
    I can’t forget my past as a maratonete: in the morning I play tennis 1 hour with my wife, in the afternoon half hour of swim and 1 hour of slow jogging.
    Still fit for it, thanks to God.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  9. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Will the 40 MW E-Cat plant you have been talking about be the first one you will build?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  10. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  11. SMG

    Dear Andrea:
    The Rock and Troll band is very nervous. They are chiming around that your trove to sell heat, not plants is a trick to avoid third parties controls.
    Isn’t a customer a third party?
    Never mind!
    SMG (Silent Majority Guy)

  12. Andrea Rossi

    SMG:
    He,he,he…Thomas Florek: what about a song “Rock and Troll”?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  13. Drew G.

    Dr. Rossi:

    Have you determined a location for the January demonstration of the Industrialized E-CAT. As much advance notice as possible concerning the location, date and time would be greatly appreciated so that attendees can avail themselves of economy prices for air travel and hotel reservations. Continued progress and success.

    Drew G.

  14. Andrea Rossi

    Drew G.:
    Sorry, we will give this information only to the invited attendees, while to the public it will be communicated the day before the event.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  15. todd burkett

    Dear Andre
    You said you plan to price the energy at 80% of other energy sources
    Such as the price of gas? I assume whatever price is available at that location?
    And what about other new energy technologies that may compete directly for the same business such as brilliant light power ? if they bring something to market?
    The reason I ask is because it seems both your companies are a similar place as far as commercial availability , are you willing and prepared to compete with another energy source that is significantly cheaper than commonly available now ?

  16. Andrea Rossi

    Todd Burkett:
    Any source will be available ( I mean really available ) we will make 20% less.
    We have plenty of margin.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  17. Robert Dorr

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    As your current reactors require a certain amount of grid power for initiation and control of the reactors, who will pay for that power, you as the owner of the equipment or the customer?

    Sincerely,

    Robert Dorr

  18. Andrea Rossi

    Robert Dorr:
    Leonardo Corp will pay for the power consumed by the Ecat plants.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  19. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted ” Pure Art of technology and a window with the view of the sun of the future.”

    It sounds like a resonator cavity with a quartz window. The inside is likely polished aluminum because of its high reflectivity at hard UV wavelengths. The window is small in comparison to the rest of the reactor. The construction is not “boxy” but a beautiful, an elegant shape. Have we shared the same dream?

  20. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Well, maybe!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  21. Roberta

    Dear Andrea,
    Happy Ferragosto! I hope you are enjoying some day of holiday,
    Cheers
    Roberta

  22. Andrea Rossi

    Roberta:
    Yes this week will be holiday.
    I wish a peaceful “Festa dell’Assunta” to our Italian Readers, albeit it cannot be “happy” after what happened in Genova yesterday.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  23. Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    Terrible, terrible, devastating. Unbelievable.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  24. Aleksander

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Will the 40 MW Ecat SK have the same conceptual structure of a gas turbine?
    Thanks if you can answer,
    Aleksander

  25. Andrea Rossi

    Aleksander:
    I would say so.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  26. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You have described an interesting pricing strategy. May I ask about a hypothetical example:

    A customer contracts with Leonardo to buy heat with a 5 year contract. They currently pay 100 for natural gas, and agree to pay 80 for E-Cat heat.

    Year 1-3: Natural gas is 100 in the marketplace, E-Cat heat is 80 (as agreed in the contract)
    Year 4: Natural gas is 120 in the marketplace, E-cat heat is ?
    Year 5: Natural gas is 90 in the marketplace, E-cat heat is ?

    Obviously this example is very simplified, thank you if you can answer.

    Kind regards,

    Frank Acland

  27. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Year 4 – 80% of 120
    Year 5 – 80% of 90
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  28. Abe Vincent

    Dear Andrea, Your 40MW reactor will certainly be an impressive sight. 4000 SK10 reactors squeezed into 8 cubic meters! The connecting pipework will have to be well insulated – if just 1% of the heat leaks you will have 400kW of waste heat to dispose of. Could get toasty in there.

  29. Andrea Rossi

    Abe Vincent:
    It will be a magnificence as I can see it inside my brain. Pure Art of technology and a window with the view of the sun of the future. My life has been also a series of failures and errors and resiliency, but if all the enormous work for which I spent my life will have as a result this plant, my life will have been worth to be spent.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  30. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    When you say that the cost of E-Cat heat will be “indexed with the variation of the market price”, do you mean:

    1. That it will always be 20 per cent less expensive than whatever the customer would normally use (e.g. natural gas)?
    2. That if the price of (for example) natural gas rises, the cost of E-Cat heat will also rise?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  31. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    1- yes
    2- no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  32. P.E.

    Power Engineering, 08/10/2018: “UK Group pushes advantages of small nuclear reactors (SNRs)”

  33. Andrea Rossi

    P.E.:
    Interesting. I read the article, we are talking of nuclear fission plants, each rated 500 MW, that cost about 2.5 billion $ ( 5 million/MW ).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  34. K7

    In some areas of the globe the internet connection is very weak, therefore your strategy of remote control from the headquarters of Leonardo Corporation would become shaky.

  35. Andrea Rossi

    K7:
    True. In fact we are not going to deliver our plants where there are not good connections. Anyway, sooner or later any connection faults, therefore our Clients must have a backup and our system will reinstate the Ecat remote control asap automatically.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  36. Giusy

    Dr Andrea,
    Sorry, I am ignorant of Physics: reading what the consultant of IH said, which is that LENR violate the first principle of thermodynamic, I tink that they are wrong, because the formula of Einstein E=mc2 makes LENR respect the first principle of thermodynamic. Am I correct?
    Giusy

  37. Andrea Rossi

    Giusy:
    “We all are ignorant. What is true is that we do not ignore the same things” ( Albert Einstein ).
    About your consideration, it is correct.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  38. Robert Dorr

    Dear DR. Rossi,

    Herta Hoster asked you how much the customer would save using your reactors instead of the customers current system and you indicated roughly 20%. It was a bit unclear to me if you meant that they would save 20% or that they would spend 20% of what they are currently spending. So if the customer is spending $100 for there current system would they now be spending $20 with your new reactors or would they be spending $80 with your new reactors? Sorry if this is redundant I just want to have a clear picture of the savings your reactors will provide. I am very excited that you are getting so close to the introduction of your of new power system.

    Sincerely,

    Robert Dorr

  39. Andrea Rossi

    Robert Dorr:
    If our Customers now are spending 100, with the Ecat plants they will spend 80 and the price will be indexed with the variation of the market price, to maintain the 20% of earning for the Customer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  40. Gennady

    Dear Andrea,

    Regarding my COP question. It would be interesting to know at least a range for QX and SK10 40 MW unit. Is the unit made up of QXs will have COP above 50, 100, 150, 200… ? And the same question about 40 MW plant made up of SK 10 units.

    Kind regards

    Gennady

  41. Andrea Rossi

    Gennady:
    I prefer not to give numbers before the plants are in operation.
    It will be enough to make it convenient for the Client and for us.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  42. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello A. Rossi

    Do you have an opportunity to tell us what is the total power that you hope to install during the year 2019?
    All my support to your entire team.
    Best regards

    Raffaele

  43. Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    Premature to answer,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  44. Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    Very useful, thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  45. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You write that you are on track for a January presentation, which I very much look forward to. Does this mean:

    1. You expect to have production lines making E-Cats before the presentation?
    2. You expect to have at least one plant installed and working at a customer site before the presentation?

    Thank you,

    Frank Acland

  46. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    1- yes
    2- maybe, but it is difficult
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  47. Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Today I saw in the Drexel University Research magazine EXEL an article about new Boride compounds that are useful at high temperatures.

    https://exelmagazine.org/article/building-a-better-boride/

    Perhaps these may be interesting in your work.

    Thermal regards,

    Joseph Fine

  48. Mark

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Do you think that the solar satellite that NASA has launched several days ago will give information useful also for LENR?
    Thank you,
    Mark

  49. Andrea Rossi

    Mark:
    Well, astronomy gives models and models generate ideas. So, my answer is yes, albeit indirectly.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  50. Rupert

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    has ever any “Rock and Troll” piece damaged your business?
    Cheers
    Rupert

  51. Andrea Rossi

    Rupert:
    Never.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  52. Anonymous

    Dear Andrea,
    Are you still on schedule to make the presentation of the industrialized products by January 2019?

  53. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  54. Gennady

    Dear Andrea,

    What COP are you expecting for your 40 MW plant if you are using QX? And what COP would be if you are using SK 10 units?

    Regards,

    Gennady

  55. Andrea Rossi

    Gennady:
    Enough.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  56. Sam

    This is another interesting link to the Parker
    Solar Probe.

    https://www.sciencenews.org/article/parker-solar-probe-launch-looming

  57. Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    Thank you for your two very interesting links to this remarkable achievement of NASA. I am very curious to see which secrets of the Sun this “spy” will report us!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  58. Sam

    Good Morning Dr Rossi

    Did you watch the Solar Parker probe lift
    off this morning?

    https://www.express.co.uk/news/science/1002057/nasa-launch-live-tv-solar-parker-probe-lift-off-sun-watch-video

    Regards
    Sam

  59. Abe Vincent

    Re 40MW plant… For comparison I believe the engines on a Boeing 777 can produce around 83MW each.

  60. Andrea Rossi

    Abe Vincent:
    GE 90 is rated about 100 MW of power.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  61. Judy

    This apparently normal patent, with “Fluid Heater” as a low profile title, in reality can be a global game changer.

  62. Andrea Rossi

    Judy:
    Thanks for your opinion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  63. Dom

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    Can you tell us the price of the 40 MW plant?

  64. Andrea Rossi

    Dom:
    The Client will pay nothing for the plant, because it will remain of our property and the Client will pay only the heat. Should it be for sale its price would be 20 million $, but for the time being we are not going to sell.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  65. Nicholas

    Will the 40 MW Ecat plant work 24/7?

  66. Andrea Rossi

    Nicholas:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  67. Andrea Rossi

    Wolofgang Schubert:
    Maybe, with the gas turbines fueled by the Ecat SK. It is not impossible, albeit surely not in short term an not even in the middle term.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  68. Wolfgang Schubert

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Do you hold it for possible that one day the comercial aircrafts can fly by LENR?
    With best wishes,
    Wolfgang Schubert
    (Electrician and Electric Technician)

  69. Jeff Jeffreys

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Do you think the patent you got protects also the SK version of the Ecat?

  70. Andrea Rossi

    Jeff Jeffreys:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  71. Iggy Dalrymple

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    Regarding your 40 MW order, will the steam be used for
    (1) heating
    (2) to drive motors/turbines
    (3) both
    Best regards,
    Iggy

  72. Andrea Rossi

    Iggy Dalrymple:
    Supply heat to a production process.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  73. TK

    Dr Rossi,
    Has your patent been granted also in Japan?
    Thank you.

  74. Andrea Rossi

    TK:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  75. Ruby

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Will the heat made by the 40 MW Ecat be used to make electric power?

  76. Andrea Rossi

    Ruby:
    No. The heat will be used for the industrial process of the Client.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  77. Gavino Mamia

    Dott. Rossi, quante pale eoliche occorrono per produrre 40 MW di energia?
    Quanti mq di pannelli fotovoltaici occorrono per produrre 40 MW?
    Giusto per avere un confronto con le tecnologie green attuali…

  78. Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia:
    I am not an expert of eolic and photovoltaic energy, but obviously the answer depends on two factors, that are not constants:
    1- the wind and solar energy statistically allowed in the specific site, that obviously are very different in different geographic sites
    2- the power of the wind and P.V. modules
    Without these data an answer is impossible.
    We can make an example: considering modules respectively of 1 MW for the eolic generators and of 1 kW/m^2 for the P.V. and considering a site that allows about the 10% of the power turned into energy, to make 40 MWh/h of energy you need 400 eolic generators or 400 000 P.V. modules.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  79. Prof

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    The preparation of a LENR 40 MW plant in an industry that will use its heat is probably the most important thing that is happening in the world.
    May God help you in this miraculous enterprise.
    Prof

  80. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Thank you for your attention to the work of our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  81. E. Hergen

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    the huge 40 MW order is a new development. What does this mean for your planned presentation for january? The 40 MW reactor will not be ready until then. Will you delay your presentation until you have a ready and running reactor?

    Thank you,

    E. Hergen

  82. Andrea Rossi

    E.Hergen:
    The presentation in January will be done.
    It is independent from the status od the deliveries of the plant to our Clients.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  83. Dear Dr. Andrea Rossi,

    firstly, please, allow me to express my deep support, I’m not on the business side of the story but rather on the naif one, and, led by poor ignorarance I take the occasion to ask you a question, I understand you have in your hands power density mastering comparable to the actual nuclear standard power plants, as for your claims few cubic meter space requirements are for 40MW gain. Have you considered proposing retrofitting uranium facilities ? Reactor Core a part, the istallation, electrical network and the market are already there, with or without internet connection; history teach sharing costs less than splitting, politics aside.
    My True Regards
    Giovanni Fois

  84. Andrea Rossi

    Giovanni Fois:
    Theoretically that is thinkable about, but there are mountains to climb from the permissions point of view.
    For the moment the better way to go through is to be independent.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  85. Abe Vincent

    Dear Andrea,

    If the SK10 is a 10KW reactor you need 4000 of them to make a 40MW reactor. Sounds like it will be a challenge to fit 4000 reactors with heat exchangers in just 8 cubic meters (about 1/5th of a standard shipping container). Did you mean 80 cubic meters?

  86. Andrea Rossi

    Abe Vincent:
    I confirm my numbers.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  87. CC

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Your enemies are making Rock and Troll, but you are Beethoven.
    Godspeed,
    CC

  88. Andrea Rossi

    CC:
    He,he,he
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  89. TOUSSAINT francois

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    When will you know when the SK 100 Kw will be a product?

    Do you think that the SK reactor will be able to scale up, 1Mw or more in the future ?

  90. Andrea Rossi

    Toussaint Francois:
    1- within this year
    2- I do not know.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  91. Dear Andrea,
    Just my opinion: if you end up building the 40 MW out of QX’s, there is no reason to be disappointed. The QX is a ready product in a certain market segment that only partly overlaps with the SK, and the QX needs usage statistics in order to make it ready for massive production. The 40 MW installation would give that. Ideally, both QX and SK need their own 40 MW thing, but since the QX is more ready than the SK, it makes sense to do it first for the QX, then for the SK.
    regards, /pekka

  92. Andrea Rossi

    Pekka Janhunen:
    Thank you for the suggestion, that makes sense. It will be decided by end September.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  93. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    1. Is the customer you are building the 40 MW E-Cat plant for in the United States?
    2. Is this the largest installation you currently have?
    3. Is this customer in the food processing industry (you have mentioned this previously).
    4. Are you on site at this customer’s facility to supervise the construction?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  94. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    1- the location of our Client is for now confidential. I can say the Client is one of the biggest entities of the world in its field, if not the biggest.
    2- this is the largest installation we will have to make for the time being
    3- I cannot answer this question in positive or in negative
    4- not yet, at the moment we are deciding which modules to use ( SK or QX series ), hoping they will be SK, and we are starting with a certified engineer of the State where the Client is the procedures for the authorizations, in collaboration with the Client. I will be in the Customer facility surely in September to define the details for the installation of the plant. Eventually the production of the modules will be started, at this point I definitely would say within the year 2018.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  95. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    Can you give us the approx dimensions of a 40 MW plant?

  96. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    The reactors section: m 2 x 2 x 2
    Plus the control system on site.
    Obviously we are taking of thermal energy.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  97. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello A. Rossi

    A question of physics maybe stupid.
    When an electron changes its orbit, does it instantly with a Δt = 0? That’s what I understood.
    If so, would an electron in a particle accelerator move the same way point-to-point instantaneously so that its progression would be jerky?
    Would other particles like the photon do the same?
    Thank you for your answer certainly less stupid than my questions.
    I remember that I am not a physicist
    All my support for the development of the SK.
    Best regards.

    Raffaele

  98. Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    When an electron changes “orbit” (actually, it is not an orbit, but a quantic status, that determines where it is most probable the electron can be found) necessarily the T is increased if the electron goes to occupy a higher quantic status ( which means goes more far from the nucleus ) or the T is decreased if the electron probability field becomes nearest to the nucleus, so that the electron gets a lower quantic status. Therefore it is impossible that the quantic status of an electron changes without a delta T.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  99. Anonymous

    @JPR
    the trolls are saying the trial Rossi VS Cherokee has given evidence of the fact that the Ecat does not work. Rossi does not comment, what can you say about this?

  100. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Assuming we use the SK 10,
    Reactors plus heat exchanger 8 cubic meters, plus the control systems and the steam circuits.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  101. Herta Hoster

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    How much will save the client of the 40 MW plant you will deliver?
    Thanks if you can answer,
    H.H.

  102. Andrea Rossi

    Herta Hoster:
    About the 20% respwect what the Client is spending now.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  103. Teresa Kincaid

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Do you already have other plants to deliver, besides the 40 MW plant you cited yesterday in your comment?
    Godspeed,
    Teresa

  104. Andrea Rossi

    Teresa Kincaid:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  105. P.D.

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    the 40 MW plant you have to deliver to sell heat is already in construction?
    If yes, will it be made by SK or QX?

  106. Andrea Rossi

    P.D.:
    We still have to decide if to make series of Ecat SK 10 ( which is most probable ) or of Ecat QX. The QX are ready, the SK not yet, we have to decide soon.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    P.S.
    Your comment is the N. 43 000 of this blog

  107. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    The countries you mention open for your business are all in Europe and North America. Is this where your employees will be available to work?

    Thank you,

    Frank Acland

  108. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Also.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  109. Italo Romano

    Dear Dr. Rossi, the lump sum payment may not be convenient for a customer.
    If, for example, the power used varies between 40 MW and 10 MW over time, he will still pay as if he were constantly receiving 40 MW. Even with the 30% discount on the cost of energy, he will pay a lot more.
    It would be better, I think, to measure the real energy supplied.
    Kind Regards,

    Italo R.

  110. Andrea Rossi

    Italo Romano:
    We adopt the lump sum. Obviously our Clients must order an amount of heat they are sure to consume.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  111. Dear Dr Rossi

    Does your heat exchanger have the ability to delivery pressured steam or do you still require a boiler setup. This would be for steam turbine setups.

    Thank you

  112. Andrea Rossi

    Manuel Cilia:
    The heat exchaanger can deliver pressurized steam.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  113. Alessandro Coppi

    Is it far from truth that your customer of 40 Mw plant will pay 1000 usd per hour?

    Alessandro Coppi

  114. Andrea Rossi

    Alessandro Coppi:
    Sorry, the price is confidential.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  115. ORSOBUBU: Regarding your August 7 2018 @5:25 AM: “ ….. produced by all humanity according to the abilities of everyone, and distribute it ….. to all humanity according to the needs of everyone. ”

    You have an astonishingly demoralizing philosophy! No matter how much an individual may, by virtue of his intelligence, motivation and sheer effort, contribute to a country’s living standards, you believe his reward should be no greater than that of anyone else: merely ‘what he needs’.

    And conversely, if an individual feels like contributing no more than ‘the very least he can get away with’, then his reward should be identical: merely ‘what he needs’. What school of ethics could possibly support this line of reasoning? And can you not see the overwhelming incentives this presents for idleness?

    So, in a system like the one you advocate, there are zero incentives for anyone to make any effort beyond the most minimal possible; zero incentive to study, to increase knowledge, qualifications and capabilities so as to become more productive; or to invent new products; or to improve existing products; or to find ways to do a very good job for customers, since no matter how much effort a person makes – huge or negligible – he will be rewarded identically. Or more accurately: a nebulous government bureaucrat will decree what you need, given the minimal quantity of income available to be distributed under such a system.

    This is of course the very reason for the grinding poverty in jurisdictions where this philosophy has been inflicted on those unfortunate enough to live there, and where, at borders, razor wire fences are usually erected with turrets at every corner, manned with machine guns, to prevent anyone from getting out to a much better life elsewhere.

    This philosophy fully explains, as noted, with a link documenting it, on a previous occasion, why fully qualified and practising medical doctors in Cuba are paid either $30 a month (if they have only one specialty) or $67 per month (if they have more than one). The reason for such mind-bogglingly abysmal incomes is that this is the best this kind of system can do for living standards. Or in the Ukraine, to take another example, where incomes (GDP per person in real terms, after adjustment for differences in price levels) are about 84% lower than in the more prosperous countries of western Europe*. Notably, the ukrainian population’s genetic background and their innate abilities are no different from those of the people of western Europe. All that is different is the system. In the more prosperous countries of Europe the annual expenditure merely on food is only a little less than the entire annual income in Ukraine!

    Where I live there are incentives to be more productive. People working in coffee shops here earn 28 times as much as cuban physicians with two specialties, and 60-fold more than those with just one specialty. I prefer to live here rather than in Cuba or Ukraine.

    Is it not clear that, anywhere there are such powerful deterrents to the application of effort, the modest improvements in living standards, such as they are, have almost all been derived from ‘borrowing’** techniques invented and developed by people living in places where extra effort is rewarded, very approximately, in proportion to tangible measures of how much they contribute?

    The reality everywhere your system has been in place is so demonstrably stark, it is a mystery to me how you are unable to recognize the reason for it. It should be staring you in the face. And of course, in addition to the economic misery, the truly astonishing political oppression that always accompanies it, is often at least as appalling.
    – – – – – – – – –
    But thank you for your links about BlockChain. To be clear, it is not my position that BlockChain will never have any uses. My purpose was merely to warn that the posts about it here, and elsewhere on the internet around the same time, while presenting themselves as trying to do people a favour with an investment opportunity, had more of the flavour of the stock promotions of the old days. It appeared likely that those who had gotten in on the ground floor and manipulated the price to very high levels, needed to find suckers to sell to before the inevitable collapse. As a factual matter, the first BlockChain posts here did coincide with the very top in the prices of the BlockChain stocks. The stock of BitCoin Services (BTSC), for example, is presently down 87% from its high of late 2017. But it was up about 1% yesterday. GBTC – another BlockChain stock – is down 74% from its high.

    *https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(PPP)_per_capita

    ** Usually while avoiding payment of royalties, so these societies are dishonest as well as incompetent.

    Rodney.

  116. DvH

    Hello Mr. Rossi,
    some of the posts in the recent days refer to the delivery of heat to a customer, for which he is charged. How is that measured? By some calorimeter ? Or by indirectly measuring temperature and estimating the flow?
    You are aware that you’d need a calibrated approved calorimeter-device in most countries?
    greetings
    DvH

  117. Andrea Rossi

    DvH:
    It will be a forfait: for example, we are going to supply a system for a total power of 40 MW to a Customer and the Customer will pay 40 MWh/h, even if he will not use in part or in total this amount of energy. Obviously the Client will not pay the amount due for the quantity of energy we will not supply for malfunctions deriving from our responsibility ( errors of us, lack of our maintenance, breakages due to our fault et similia ). Therefore if, for example, we will have a blackout of 10 hours due to our errors, the Customer will not pay 400 MWh, that will be deducted from the bill at the end of the month.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  118. Michael

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Will be the module of the industrialized Ecat QX equal to the Ecat shown on the video of youtube “Presentation of the Ecat QX Stockholm November 24 2018”?

  119. Andrea Rossi

    Michael:
    No.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  120. Andrea Rossi

    Wladek:
    Initially e will be able to sell our service in the USA, Canada, Mexico, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, UK, France, Germany, Spain. These are the locations where we are already able to assist our Customers for the time being.
    Obviously we are looking for to cover all the Countries of the world.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  121. Władek

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Will you be able to sell your service also in Poland?

  122. Michaeł

    Dr Rossi:
    Do you have anything to say about the heavy comment of JPR in response to Anonymous and the other interesting comments eventually related to it?
    Michael

  123. orsobubu

    Dear Andrea, coincidentally, I read this old post:
    —————–
    Rodney Nicholson
    June 27, 2018 at 5:56 PM
    Hi all:

    Regular readers of this blog may recall that several months ago there were a few posts here seemingly attempting to promote investment in Bitcoin and other blockchain entities. In that regard the following chart may help place those discussions in perspective…
    ——————
    I participated in the discussion and also proposed to Andrea to be interested in blockchain technologies (certainly not to invest in cryptocurrencies). I still remain with the idea that – not today – but thanks to future developments there may be some contact between the technologies of production and distribution of energy in the grid and blockchains, as suggested in these links:

    http://www.aspeninstitute.it/aspenia-online/en/article/blockchain-based-energy-future

    https://www.forbes.com/sites/andrewarnold/2018/04/16/how-blockchain-can-help-increase-the-security-of-smart-grids/#52918eab4894

    https://hackernoon.com/using-blockchain-technology-to-boost-cyber-security-19b6ef4e6898

    https://www.the-blockchain.com/2018/05/20/securing-sensitive-medical-data-with-blockchain-technology/

    http://www.dataversity.net/blockchain-can-used-secure-sensitive-data-storage/

    https://www.csoonline.com/article/3279006/blockchain/4-reasons-blockchain-could-improve-data-security.html

    https://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelwolfson/2018/07/03/how-a-leading-cyber-security-company-uses-blockchain-technology-to-prevent-data-tampering/#7be7dd344529

    From what I understand, the utility would be in the economic accounting of the distributed energy, in the immutability of the generated databases, in the protection of sensitive data. Then, it is obvious that the issue of cryptocurrencies was obligatory, if they wanted to give a capitalist sense of remuneration and valorisation of work, and yet blockchain technology would find its ideal terrain in a post-capitalist economy, totally devoid of money, because it would be essential to ascertain and organize the work collectively produced by all humanity according to the abilities of everyone, and distribute it without the possibility of cheating to all humanity according to the needs of everyone.

  124. Andrea Rossi

    Orsobubu:
    Thank you for your insight.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  125. Ulrich Kranz

    Dr Rossi,
    while searching, I found an interesting page related to your development in the past:
    https://www.espryx.com/product/thermoelectric-generators/en/

  126. Andrea Rossi

    Ulrich Kranz:
    Thank you for the link. The efficiency, as you see, is low. I know vwey well the matter, I made a lot of work on it. When I realized very expensive Seebeck generators, with directional fusion that costed a hundred dollars per gram, I obtained 20% of efficiency, but when we tried to scale up things to reach acceptable costs, it has not been possible reach the same precision level of the directional fusion, so that the figure of merit has fallen down.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  127. Eric Ashworth

    Dear Andrea, Just a thought, With regards the longevity of the Ecat performance. If you are using commercial grade hydrogen have you considered the purity of the hydrogen. Hydrogen purity wikipedia and catalyst poisoning Wikipedia does mention some downsides with regards commercial hydrogen. No doubt you are aware but thought I would bring it to your attention.
    Regards Eric Ashworth.

  128. Andrea Rossi

    Eric Ashworth:
    Thank you for your suggestion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  129. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Thank you for clarifying the eCat SK reactor with the dimensions of 25cm x 25cm by 18cm has a thermal output of 10kW.

    Using a standard model of a horizontal cylinder in natural convection air of 25cm in length by a diameter of 25cm, the 10kW thermal output suggests a skin temperature of about 710 degC.

    1. How do you transfer the reactor heat to the heat exchanger? Primarily by Conduction or by Radiation?
    2. What is the media to transfer the heat from the reactor to the heat exchanger? Oil, water, metal?

  130. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Sorry, but, again, your numbers do not make sense and I cannot give the details of the 10 kW Ecat SK and the heat exchanging system we invented.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  131. Iggy Dalrymple

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    “Andrea Rossi
    August 6, 2018 at 9:13 AM
    Frank Acland:
    The Customers will pay the bills of the heat delivered at the end of every month: this means they have not to pay in advance the heat they are going to receive.”
    ~~~~~~~~~
    But subject to minimum purchase per time interval,for example, per month or varying according to season, but minimum purchase per contractual period. Or minimum cash payment, regardless of heat demanded.
    Correct?
    Best regards,
    Iggy

  132. Andrea Rossi

    Iggy Dalrymple:
    The details of the agreements are specific depending on the characteristic of the Client.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  133. Vera

    @JPR,
    thank you for your comment answering to Anonymous: it was past due.
    Also in Italy we have same kind of trolls: one of the most vociferous is based on an energy provider whose coal fired thermoelectric plants have emissions among the most toxic of our Country.
    @Andrea Rossi: “Non ti curar di lor, ma guarda e passa”
    Vera

  134. CC

    @JPR:
    Thank you for your answer to Anonymous: now we know better these charlatans.
    CC

  135. Jack

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    I like your answer to JPR. The only thing that counts is that you produce and install the Ecats.
    Godspeed,
    Jack, from the silent majority

  136. Andrea Rossi

    Jack:
    I agree, that’s what we are doing,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  137. V.

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    I totally agree with your intelligent answer to JPR. The industrialization and the delivery of your plants to sell heat to your clients is destroying your enemies and their trolls; to avoid loss of time with those charlatans is mandatory.
    Godspeed,
    V.

  138. Andrea Rossi

    V.:
    I agree.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  139. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I understand from your answers that you are saying the eCtat SK has dimensions of 25 x 25 x 18 (cm) and can output 100kW of thermal power.

    1. When operating the device, are you using any forced flow convection?
    2. If yes to 1, what type of medium, water?
    3. Modeling the enclosure as a horizontal cylinder (25cm x 25cm) in natural convection shows a skin temperature of about 1,500C. Does your current reactor run at that temperature?

  140. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Wrong: I am saying that the Ecat SK with the same dimensions of the 20 W Ecat QX shown in Stockholm on Nov 24 is the 10 kW SK, not the 100 kW SK.
    Answers to the other points:
    1- where?
    2- see above: if you refer to the secondary circuit, we use water
    3- sorry, but this does not make sense.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  141. JPR

    Anonymous,
    the trial Rossi VS Cherokee has given evidence that Rossi was right! The trolls cite as evidence the papers produced by Cherokee/ Darden, forgetting to say that those papers are party papers made by the consultants of Cherokee, not neutral papers. To understand neutral facts, you have to read also the papers produced by Rossi and think about these facts, not words: Cherokee-Darden, on the base of their papers, asked the Court to make Rossi pay to Cherokee/ Darden 50 millioons, plus 11.5 millions of legal fees. Had only the 10% of the accusations you read on the papers produced by Cherokee Darden been true, Rossi could have been destroyed, but, on the contrary, if you read the settlement agreement, it recites that not only Rossi had to pay nothing to Cherokee/ Darden, but Cherokee/ Darden had to pay to Rossi 11.5 millions, already paid, plus give back to Rossi everything Rossi had given them in terms of IP, prototypes and engage themselves not to use in future any information Rossi/Leonardo Corp had delivered to them. Among such prototypes there were also the ones that Brillouin has integrally copied after the agreement they made with IH; just onserve all the prototypes of Brillouin before the agreement with IH- that were based on electrolysis- and the HT they made after the agreement with IH, that are the copycat of the Ecat presented from Rossi in Zurich in the year 2012, at the eve of the agreement Leonardo-Cherokee.
    Rossi is absolutely right not to mess with the trolls, but I am a retired engineer and have time to get some fun against those charlatans.
    JPR
    P.S.
    To add comics to clownesque: one of the consultants of Cherokee, Mr Eng Murray, partner of Mr Eng. Zoepfl in the consulting firm 3D Phoenix, located few miles from IH, in the papers so dear to the trolls wrote that LENR are impossible because violate the first thermodynamic principle. Now he has made a patent application related to the LENR. More comics: this application is related to the “invention” that corresponds to the invention of the hot water: the use of spectrometry as a component of a control system…Useless to say, the owner of this application is IH, in desperate research of papers to feed with their investors after the loss of the IP of Andrea Rossi.

  142. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Will you customers who are purchasing heat have to pay in advance for it, or will they be billed after they have made use of it?

    Kind regards,

    Frank Acland

  143. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    The Customers will pay the bills of the heat delivered at the end of every month: this means they have not to pay in advance the heat they are going to receive.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  144. Ulrich Kranz

    You mentioned that the Ecat QX has the same dimensions of the 20 W QX shown in Stockholm: cm 25 x 25 x 18.
    Does the prototype of the Ecat SK you are making tests with now have the same dimensions?
    Ulrich

  145. Andrea Rossi

    Ulrich Kranz:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  146. JPR

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    You too have some trolls that spend almost full time their days, obviously paid by your enemies for some reason, disparaging you in many ways with blatantly false news.
    I noticed you do not react: why?
    JPR

  147. Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    I do not react because it is useless. They produce, as you correctly say, false news, we produce plants. I have better to do than read their trollades, let alone answer them.
    They cannot stop the diffusion of my plants and that is the sole reason of my life. About the disparaging of my character, people are not stupid and understand what the trolls are for. When a general is winning a war, the growls of the enemies do not change the facts in the battlefield. Facts overcome false news.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  148. Victor

    Dear Andrea:
    You confirm that the 10 kW Ecat SK 10 has the same dimension of the 20 W Ecat QX we saw in Stockholm? It seems incredible.
    With high respect,
    Victor

  149. Andrea Rossi

    Victor:
    It is still a prototype, but we are working well. Yesterday we got a very good result and, yes, if it will work it will be equal ( from outside ) to the 20 W Ecat QX we have shown in Stockholm on Nov 24th 2017.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  150. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Are you currently controlling E-Cats via an internet connection from a remote location, and if so, how well is this method of control working?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  151. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    We are making tests and we are satisfied of them so far. Obviously the difficult part is not to make a remote control, as modulated as it might be, but to make it impossible to be hacked. We are being helped also by retired military specialists of the field.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  152. Iggy Dalrymple

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    I think you mentioned that the e-cat QX had the more adjustable heating range. Would this mean that the QX would be more likely the eventual candidate for the domestic home heating and water heater?
    Best regards,
    Iggy

  153. Andrea Rossi

    Iggy Dalrymple:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  154. Fox

    Dear Andrea
    Is the supply of heat by the Ecat constant or adaptable-mutable-variable by the customer? This implies a bidirectional communication between the installed Ecat and the control center. There are countries or even areas of a country (eg USA) where the Web works very badly with a high level of disturbances and frequent and long interruptions: In these countries or localities can the ECAT be installed?
    A warm greeting

  155. Andrea Rossi

    Fox:
    I think we will be able to adapt our remote control technology to most of applications, not all, though. Obviously a backup is necessary.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  156. Kuba

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    If you will pass from 20 W to 10 000 W in the same box we saw in Stockholm in November 2017, this will be a miraculous achievement.
    Godspeed,
    Kuba

  157. Andrea Rossi

    Kuba:
    We are making an exceptionally hard work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  158. Brent Whipple

    Dr Rossi,
    I suppose that jet engines fueled by the Ecat SK could be competitive with rocket engines to launch rockets.
    Did you consider this application?
    regards,
    Brent Whipple

  159. Andrea Rossi

    Brent Whipple:
    I am totally privy of any knowledge about rockets. Good sense tells me that the Ecat cannot reach the thrust necessary to send in orbit a rocket.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  160. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello A. Rossi

    You said that Leonardo gave 20 000 $ in theoretical research. This budget seems very derisory compared to the challenge of this research and especially if new instruments are needed. Carlos can not even, with this budget, hire or buy some skills. He himself must be a volunteer in the case.
    My crystal ball tells me that there should be at least one more zero in this budget. Can you confirm the figure of 20 000 $ , and if so, can you explain how that work can do that with so little money.
    All my support for your team and especially today for Mr. Guilstron
    Best regards

    Raffaele

  161. Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    I do not know what to answer.
    With that budget Leonardo Corporation is making a very good experiment finalized to the theory of the R.E.
    We invent and make in our lab new instruments and this helps.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  162. Dear Andrea,
    Thank you for your reply. You wrote: “The Ecat SK 10 is equal.” Is it a typo, did you mean to write SK 100 ?
    regards, /pekka

  163. Andrea Rossi

    Pekka Janhunen:
    Ecat SK 10 is referred to the 10 kW prototype. By the way, while I am writing it is performing very well. It has the same dimensions and aspect of the 20 W prototype you can see here:
    YouTube Ecat QX presentation Stockholm November 24 2017.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  164. domenico canino

    Dear Andrea,
    What are your real obstacle now? Time, Money, Business Strategy, Financial interest in old fossil energies delayng LENR?

  165. Andrea Rossi

    Domenico Canino:
    Don’t say ‘obstacles’, say ‘work to do’.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  166. Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    You said to Frank Ackland that the ‘proposal campaign is successful’. Does that mean that you are actively approaching potential customers for selling Ecats, or are you proposing customers that contacted the Leonardo company how they can integrate the Ecat in their processes?
    Anyway, I hope it will be a booming business!
    Thanks and kind regards, Gerard

  167. Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:
    What we are proposing, as I said, is exclusively the installation of our Ecats in the factories of our Clients to sell the heat, controlling the plants in remote from our headquarter in Miami, wherever the plants might be in the world. We will maintain full property and control of the plant, while our Clients will save money paying our Joules much less that the normal market price. This will remain our policy for a long time, to maintain full control of our IP. We already have set up a remote control system that we deem almost impossible to be cracked.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  168. Marco

    Dear Andrea,
    So far you have 10Kw and 100Kw ECat SK prototypes. This is a suggestion for the future, because you have not the certification for household installation yet, but current gas boilers in Italy, the ones that serve both household heating and instant tap water heating for shower and so on, have a range of power between 21Kw (the cheaper ones) to 25 and up to 30-35Kw i think. Could you produce a single SK module of such a power or one must use a 100Kw driven under the limit or worse 2-3 10kw modules? A single 21-25Kw SK module would be simpler to control, service and maintain, i think. The set-up times it’s not a problem if it’s below 20-30 seconds, because current boilers have a steel plate to exchange the heat between a primary closed loop circuit, directly in contact with the flame, that is used also for the closed loop for the household heating and the secondary circuit for sanitary water, so the setup time is in the 30s yet. I mean this: if the setup time is low, the ECat can be used like the current gas boilers available in italy (heat the water as it’s needed) and not like the old electric boiler that have a 2kw resistance and a 50-100lt buffer. Thoughts?

  169. Andrea Rossi

    Marco:
    Thank you for your suggestion, surely useful when we will deal with the domestic applications.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  170. Dear Andrea,
    Are there separate SK models for 100 kW and 10 kW, or is there only one SK model which flexes from 10 to 100 kW?
    r:pekka

  171. Andrea Rossi

    Pekka Janhunen:
    There is the Ecat SK 10 and the SK 100. Just prototypes, so far, but at the end of August/ beginning of September we will have important results and we will decide.
    The Ecat SK 10 has the same dimensions and is equal externally to the 20 W prototype shown in Stockholm: it can be seen googling “youtube Ecat QX demonstration Stockholm November 24 2017”
    The Ecat SK 10 is equal. This important development has been contingent with the new heat exchange system.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  172. E. Hergen

    Mr. Rossi,

    can you use the newly invented heat exchange system for the e-cat qx , too?

    Thank you,

    E. Hergen

  173. Andrea Rossi

    E.Hergen:
    It can work also for the QX.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  174. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    About the word ‘nuclear’ in LENR. Since most people are unfamiliar with the idea of low energy nuclear reaction, and are familiar with risks associated with nuclear fission, how does Leonardo assure customers that your E-Cat technology is safe to use?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  175. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Presently we are proposing our heat supply service to industrial concern that understand well that our Ecat does not emit ionizing radiations.
    As a matter of fact, our proposal campaign, that is on course, seems to be successful.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  176. Roberto

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Can you give an idea of the dimensions of the Ecat SK 10 kW could have?
    Thanks if you can answer,
    R.R.

  177. Andrea Rossi

    Roberto:
    The prototype we are working with now has the same dimensions of the one we have shown in Stockholm on November 24 2017: that one had 20 W of power, now in the same box we are testing the 10 kW Ecat SK. Many problems still to be resolved, though. The invention of the new heat exchange system has helped a lot.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  178. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You may wish to consider developing a power plant for large and medium scale drones. The drone application world is rapidly expanding. But most are limited by the onboard fuel or the battery capacity. This causes frequent returns to be refueled/battery replacement and the drone then continues its mission.

    Imagine an eCat powered drone capable of flying for 6 months continuously or more. Improved efficiency as never having to depart from its mission to be refueled or to replace its batteries.

    Another application I have heard of is herd tracking in Canada for the oil companies. Currently it is done by manned aircraft taking pictures of the herds. I have heard they average 1 or 2 crew members killed per year because of weather (Controlled Flight Into Terrain). A long endurance drone would be less expensive and safer for human life.

  179. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for your ideas.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  180. Eric Ashworth

    Dear Andrea, As you are aware a part of the eCat process relies upon producing virtual particles (VPs). This current subject with regards VPs is I would say an emerging technology that will open up a whole new field in physics as people become more aware of how VPs can be produced and what they can achieve. VPs are formed when charges are distorted (the greater their distortion, the greater is their energy content) so as to enable them to transduce i.e. flip back to their original state with regards their original dimension and go beyond (hydrogen VPs provide a soft energy reaction). So here, I am referring to the Woodward effect a controversial science regarding a propellant-less propulsion, documented in Wikipedia and described as a mach effect thruster that is diagrammed as containing a capacitor and an inductor, these two objects are as capacitor negative and inductor positive. They are both identical objects being electrons that have gone through a series of simultaneous distortions to create a volume negative structure and a size positive structure. The diagram shows the positive inductor of size potential that does transduce to its neutral i.e. expand providing a forward push as the capacitor of volume negative potential simultaneously has to transduce also to its neutral potential i.e. contract providing a forward push by like repels like. However the system is not as simple as described because it requires a multiple step systemic system of interacting potentials to be produced within one time frame. This requires simple geometry with a delayed timing sequence of events to initiate an integrated single time frame within which multiple transitions take place as each VP potential has to transduce. The Woodward effect is within mainstream physics but Wikipedia lacks information although it does portray itself to be a comprehensive source of information i.e. everything up front, nothing hidden but couched in slanted terminology, no doubt they have their reasons.. Inertia is a part of the Woodward effect. All inertia is, is the distortion of a field at the atomic level due to an induced movement, the more dense the material the more there is to distort. This distortion is with regards the magnetic field of the atom. Semi/permanent distortions can be imprinted into hot metals when centrifuged to a cold state and exposed to light whereupon inertia becomes apparent. (boomerangs contain two unequal distortions when in motion). I have mentioned previously the linearizing propulsion mechanism (LPM) and this is where the Woodward effect slots into this technology. Low energy nuclear reactions also has its connection but it relies upon the hydrogen atom whereas the Woodward effect relies upon an electronic system of distorting electrons. To produce the Woodward effect you need a series of two pole DC generators so as to manufacture the required capacitors and inductors to achieve very powerful potentials. When electricity is generated it is generated from one element being the copper wire. You cannot have one element in two different states of its electron charge when within close proximity and thereby it has to undo its distortions in the form of energy release i.e. transductions, expansion of the positive and the contraction of its negative. This is done by almost forming a mass defect by attraction, that instantaneously transduce both potentials providing what is termed as the mach effect but the mach effect is not one single process. The LPM provides a minimum of eight curvature forces that interact to form four linear and four returning curvature forces which are x4 flux tubes from eight oscillating whirls. What it forms is loops of flow or a knot with a linear outflow i.e. a structure containing x8 spinning/oscillating whirls that transduce to x4 linear flows that becomes curvature on their eventual return i.e. on their event horizon. The Woodward effect does the same but with VP potentials i.e. inductors being the positive electrons and capacitors being the negative electrons. Dependent upon the purpose of the propulsion needed a specific number of generators are required to be connected so as to start in a delayed sequence. You can use four, eight or twelve but not sixteen as sixteen would give you the absolute planck number that would damage any structure in the immediate vicinity. Twelve would provide you with twelve positives and twelve negatives or twelve stones and twelve crystals dependent upon terminology. Thereby you would achieve 4 structures/charges at any one time comprised of x4 90 degree rotations of each generator These generators can be either built into the rotors of an LPM or in a linear format within the space vehicle. What is required, is that each generator is set so as to start in a 90 degree rotational sequence before the next generator is activated. On the 13th rotation the output represents 18 potentials pos. and 18 potentials neg.. 2 potentials = 1 neutral and 4 neutrals = 1 charge. Thereby -_/ 0_/0+/++ each transduce in 1 time frame between 1 potential thats gone to alpha and one thats not yet there i.e. at omega. Thereby 95777795. Once this sequence is established and complete the continuing rotations produce VPs that transduce through 4 transitions in space over a time within one frame between an anode and a cathode. Thereby 4 inductors and 4 capacitors that transduce providing the required push. The anode is situated beneath the cathode and from what I understand both the cathode and the anode have to be a hollow cylinder so as to distribute the heat. What this will visually provide is a red centre of the positive surrounded by a blue halo of the negative (should this set-up be run with a low cycle, I believe, it could be used for the electrolysis of water. Hydrogen from gas is less pure (see Wikipedia ‘electrolysis of water’). Also it is mentioned that extreme velocities create problems with regards human inertia and this is true. How is this overcome?. Well the LPM demonstrates how to achieve a static barrier layer so as to nullify a gravitational effect of a loss. In the LPM mechanism it generates eight oscillations and the same goes for the mach engine, it too generates oscillating transductions to achieve propulsion, in velocities that match the force of its propulsion. If you push and pull in rapid succession i.e. set up a vibration, nothing will move even if travelling over a distance, it will, with regards its atomic make-up appear to be standing still i.e. containing no inertia. The mach engine provides a vibrating thrust. I put this information forward because there is considerable interest in the Woodward effect as to whether it could be a genuine effect. I believe it to be genuine and realize that there is more to it than this information put forward. Also I must add that there is no practical use for such an engine by readers of Wikipedia and this is probably why Wikipedia does not provide extensive details of how it works. For people interested in this specialized subject I would recommend Wormhole Wikipedia and think of a wormhole as a minor ‘Empty Set’/flux tube that connects time dimensions. Also, I believe, you can only travel down and back up a flux tube from your own location, to go up a flux tube from your own location you are going positive and in theory your atomic dimensions would suffer damage. Something interesting to think about. Also have I mentioned neutrons as opposed to protons. the neutron is more dense than the proton because of its position of manufacture, what I think, is that the neutron is plasma of the north pole and the proton is the plasma of the south pole. Could it be that the neutron is masculine and the proton is feminine in a context of gender?. The north pole is situated more so on the event horizon of the overriding structure and flows with the inward force to the central ‘Empty Set’ whereas the south pole flows against the inward force towards the central ‘Empty Set’. What this could mean is more pressure from the North than the South resulting in the plasma taking a more central position and thereby producing neutrons and the south producing protons outermost and as I see it, without neutrons, nuclei of a nucleus could not exist (protons could be looked upon as providing cohesion at a distance and neutrons regulating to maintain distance providing stability). Maybe this is not relevant but just a thought. Regards Eric Ashworth
    P.S. This information is for theoretical consideration only, not as a practical assignment.

  181. Andrea Rossi

    Eric Ashworth:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  182. Abe Vincent

    Dear Andrea, I will rephrase my question..

    Earlier you said you are recruiting people to set up and run your factory. Have you considered advertising these jobs on your forum?

  183. Andrea Rossi

    Abe Vincent:
    Will do in future.
    Good idea.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  184. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello A. Rossi

    In France electricity is twice as expensive as gas.
    For a French manufacturer, will the E-Cat be more competitive than a gas boiler?
    All my support for your work and your team.
    Best regards

    Raffaele

  185. Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    I think yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  186. CC

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    1- what happened to the 1 MW plant of the 1 year test made for IH, after the settlement?
    2- why did you abandon its technology?
    3- do you think that your Ecats will be industrialized before the hot fusion plants like the ITER?
    4- are you going to make more public tests of the Ecat?
    Regards,
    CC

  187. Andrea Rossi

    CC:
    1- we disassembled it in all its components to study all the problems for the evolution of the technology, from which the QX and the SK series have been born
    2- because it was not mature to be given to a Client for use, it needed our team on it 24/7, which makes no sense for a plant to be given to a Client. Enormous problem emerged, as well as solutions that allowed the new generation to be born.
    3- yes
    4- No. We are focused exclusively on the industrialization. The prototypes tests phase is over.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  188. Ulrich Kranz

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Can you update us about the status of the R&D related to the Ecat SK 10?
    Thanks
    Ulrich Kranz

  189. Andrea Rossi

    Ulrich Kranz:
    We are working also on it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  190. Drew G.

    Dr. Rossi:

    I am curious if you have read the paper by Stoyan Sarg (See: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299346794_Sarg-Ni-H-cold-fusion-cor} based upon his BSM-SG models of atomic nuclei in which he references the work of yourself and Dr. Focardi. If so, any comments?

    Drew G.

  191. Andrea Rossi

    Drew G.:
    Thank you for the interesting link.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  192. Abe Vincent

    Dear Andrea, Have you considered posting a list of positions that you are trying to fill here?

    Regards,

    Abe

  193. Andrea Rossi

    Abe Vincent:
    Sorry, I do not understand your question: can you kindly rephrase it?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  194. Steven N. Karels

    So is the interest in the SK approach only one of higher power density? Same COP? Etc.?

  195. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  196. Gino

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    I watched the youtube video of the test of the Ecat QX made in Stockholm on Nov 24th 2017.
    It has been perfect, undisputable the way the water flow has been measured, the way the oscilloscope has measured the energy consumed.
    Very convincing.
    All the best,
    Gino

  197. Andrea Rossi

    Gino:
    Thanks for your attention to our work,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  198. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Conceptually, could the eCat SK design that currently has a rating of 100kW thermal output be reduced in size say to 10kW or 1kW? My thoughts were for powering a small drone, using an eCat unit to go to thermo-to-electric conversion, with maybe 10% efficiency, one could fly the drone almost indefinitely.

    Is there any potential advantage in the SK compared to the QX design at lower output levels?

    One application I know of is mapping icebergs as they move into the Atlantic shipping lanes. A job currently done by manned aircraft at some risk to the crews. A very long duration, small drone, with suitable satellite uplink capabilities to send back imagery. would be a valuable asset.

  199. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N.Karels:
    1- so far the lower possible power of the SK is 10 kW
    2- QX is fit for all the lower levels
    Interesting the iceberg issue,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  200. Abe Vincent

    Dear Andrea, are you recruiting people yet to build and/or run your factory? Regards, Abe.

  201. Andrea Rossi

    Abe Vincent:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  202. Faustino Stansell

    Which is the secondary output fluid that better fits the necessity to exchange heat with the highest efficiency with a so small primary source?

  203. Andrea Rossi

    Faustino Stansell:
    Steam.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  204. Ruby

    Dear Andrea,
    When will you know if also the Ecat SK will be introduced at the presentation of the industrialized products?
    Thanks if you can answer,
    Ruby

  205. Andrea Rossi

    Ruby:
    In September we will make a series of very important experiments with the Ecat SK and at that point we will know if we have a product, or just a prototype to be worked upon again.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  206. Mario

    Just to have an idea: how much did you spend for the theoretical work you are making related to the theoretical bases of the so called Rossi Effect?

  207. Andrea Rossi

    Mario:
    So far, combining consulting fees, instrumentation, invention and making of tools and instruments, experiments, Leonardo Corporation invested in this particular research about 20 000 $, obviously considering zero the cost of my personal work, that can be computed around several hundreds of hours in the last year, since when I had the intuition of the annihilation of virtual Fermions, wrong or correct as it might be.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  208. Ignacio

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    I watched the whole 3 hours video on youtube ECAT QX STOCKHOLM DEMONSTRATION NOVEMBER 24 2017 and I am glad I did it: very convincing.
    Waiting for the industrial product,
    Godspeed
    Ignacio

  209. Andrea Rossi

    Ignacio:
    Thank you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  210. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Are you planning to share the results of your experimental work with Carl-Oscar Gullstrom with the public, or is this for Leonardo’s internal use only.

    Thank you,

    Frank Acland

  211. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    We will make a publication, if there will be substance with sufficient figure of merit.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  212. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    If you can operate the eCat SK so that its output is primarily between 200 and 280 nanometers (UV-C), you could possibly use it for tasks like hospital room sterilization (with the patients and human operator removed). If it was on a robotic platform, it could be programmed to move through certain rooms, extinguishing the output while in occupied corridors and re-activating once within a closed room.

  213. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for the suggestion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  214. Loretta Steinharter

    Dear Andrea,
    You said that probably in December the first industrialized Ecat will start their heat production. On the theoretical field, when do you think that your work with Carl-Oscar Gullstrom will achieve solid results? Can you also where the experimants will take place?
    Godspeed,
    Loretta

  215. Andrea Rossi

    Loretta Steinharter:
    We have to make important experiments with new instrumentation we are inventing to find evidence of the annihilation of virtual Fermions. I hope and think we will have the instrumentation ready by September/October and eventually we’ll make the job. Probably in Sweden.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  216. Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    If you would succeed in getting a gas turbine running with Ecat SK’s:
    1. Is the main purpose to generate electricity with it?
    2. Would you combine them to generate both heat (for heating e.g. buildings) and electricity?
    3. Would you then also be willing to sell these as a complete units?
    Thank you, kind regards, Gerard

  217. Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:
    1- electricity generation is surely one of its task
    2- co-generation and tri-generation are obvious conjugations
    3- sales are an obvious eventuality
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  218. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Your reply to Noble Grabow you said you think that you will deliver your first E-Cat products to customers in December.

    1. About how many different customers will take delivery of your first batch of E-Cats?
    2. Will the first products delivered be E-Cat QX’s
    3. Are your first customers all in the USA?
    4. Have you finalized the manufacturing system for the first products?
    5. Does this mean you expect your production lines will be in operation by the end of November?

    Thank you very much,

    Frank Acland
    5.

  219. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    1- Deals are on course, premature to answer
    2- So far the answer is yes
    3- No
    4- To be completed
    5- Yes
    Thank you for your attention to our work,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  220. K

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Will the 1 MW plant you are going to deliver to sell heat have the same design we can see on http://www.leonardocorporation.com?

  221. Andrea Rossi

    K:
    Moreless, yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  222. Allen

    With thanks! Valuable information on this patent. Under the appearence of a simple heater there is a revolution announced.
    Godspeed,
    Allen

  223. Andrea Rossi

    Allen:
    Thank you for your attention!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  224. Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    Did you made any progress in adapting the gas turbine to the Ecat SK?
    Does the turbine also need to change for this adaptation, or is it just the SK?
    Kind regards, Gerard

  225. Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:
    Both of them need modifications. We are working on it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  226. Sam

    Hello Dr Rossi

    This is an interesting video of future telescopes.

    https://youtu.be/7x0RpGa_IXA

    Regards
    Sam

  227. Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    Thank you for the link, a very interesting projection in the future of telescopes of NASA.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  228. Joey

    Dear Andrea Rossi:
    I watched the 6 minutes video of the youtube presentation of the Ecat QX in Stockholm. It merits to be viral.
    Thank you, in 6 minutes there is condensed all the essential.

  229. Andrea Rossi

    Joey:
    Thank you. For the Readers: you can also find the link on http://www.ecat.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  230. KJ

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    If it is not possible to insulate the Up and Down Quarks, how has it been possible to calculate their mass, that are indicated, respectively, 3 MeV the Up and 6 MeV the Down Quarks?
    Thank you if you can answer

  231. Andrea Rossi

    KJ:
    Actually, Quarks are confined in the QCD system, therefore they cannot be separated to calculate their energy. Their mass has been derived from the mass of barions and hadrons and their different cross sections. The mass you cite has been obtained renormalizing the phase transition of the QCD. This method, though, is far from being considerable precise, due to the fact that the Quarks of first generation are below the normal scale of the QCD.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  232. Jess Mason

    Have you decided if you will make or not a direct streaming of the operation of the Ecat at the presentation of your industrialized Ecats?

  233. Andrea Rossi

    Jess Mason:
    We are thinking about this issue, that is also a bit premature, albeit we received intelligent suggestions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  234. Gary Hunt

    Dr Rossi,
    Talking of Astronomy: did you google “NASA, the sound of the Sun”?
    By the way: fantastic and very convincing the video on youtube of your demonstration of the Ecat QX in Stockholm.
    Best wishes for your next presentation of the industrialized Ecat,
    Gary

  235. Andrea Rossi

    Gary Hunt:
    Yes, I saw it: very interesting.
    Thank you for your kind wishes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  236. sam

    Hello Dr Rossi

    Is this what Dazzeled.

    https://youtu.be/PnQgx_qCtfY

    Sam

  237. Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    Yes, what really fascinated me is Mars, the way we saw it so close, so bright.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  238. Same

    Hello Dr Rossi

    This is an interesting video about another inventor.

    https://youtu.be/dNG5JgRL3xM

    Regards
    Sam

  239. Andrea Rossi

    Same:
    Thank you for the link, interesting indeed; remaining in the Astronomy field: how beautiful yesterday night to observe the red Moon and a Mars so luminescent! It has been for me a very emotional hour.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  240. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You are correct that most anything can be used as a weapon. But a 100kW UV light generator brings “rayguns” closer to existence. You might consider packaging the reactor portion in a way to make it difficult for it to emit light for nefarious purposes. Something to consider in the manufacturing engineering design studies.

  241. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  242. Anonymous

    Dear Andrea,
    About the fact that ENI is utilizing your patent to turn organig wastes into fuel: is it true that in the eighties they paid you 300,000,000 of Italian lire (in real value equivaent to about 2 million Euro of today) to use your technology?
    Thank you if you don’t refrain to answer

  243. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Yes, it is correct. In fact they had the right to use my technology.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  244. Noble Grabow

    Dr Rossi,
    When will you deliver the first Ecats to Clients?

  245. Andrea Rossi

    Noble Grabow:
    Within December, I think.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  246. Dear Dr Rossi

    I just watch a TED talk on CO2 removal from air. It seems a common theme in all commercial systems that are available is the high use of heat to remove the CO2 once captured, this is also the major cost of the system. It looks like the Ecat could help to bring down the cost of Carbon Capture. I still believe it is much better not to produce it in the first place but we might need to attack the problems at both ends. See below for the link

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XY_lzonfE3I

    Thank you

  247. Andrea Rossi

    Manuel Cilia:
    Thank you for the insight and the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  248. Konstantin

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    The video on youtube ” Ecat QX demonstration in Stockholm November 24 2017″ is very impressive and convincing, but I have a question: why in that case you have been able to use the Ecat in the conference room, while now you say that for the presentation you are going to make in January 2019 you cannot turn on the Ecat live in the conference room?
    Cheers
    K.

  249. Andrea Rossi

    Konstantin:
    because in Stockholm we presented a 20 W prototype, while the industrialized modules of the Ecat QX have a power of 1 kW, let alone the SK, whose power is higher by order of magnitude.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.