Rossi Blog Reader

This website tracks recent postings to Andrea Rossi's Journal of Nuclear Physics, sorting the entries with priority to Rossi's answers, which appear under each question.


• Email to Andrea Rossi - Journal Of Nuclear Physics
• Website comments to the Webmaster (who has no contact or connection with Rossi).
• Updated: 2018-04-27 00:40:07.414796Z

  1. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “It is impossible to expose the eyes to the plasma, because it is inside the reactor: see the Stockholm video of the Ecat QX demo.”
    You also posted “It is necessary an eye protection index 14. Looking at it even for seconds can cause severe damages to the eyes.”

    These two posting seem contradictory. If the plasma is contained within the reactor and the reactor walls are opaque, then no eye protection should be needed.

    Did you mean to say that: if the plasma within the eCat reactor were, somehow, actually viewed, eye protection would be required. Since it only exists within the reactor, no eye protection is needed? Please clarify.

  2. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Exactly, I was talking of a hypothesis in case of a looking at the plasma, a case that cannot happen to a Customer,being the plasma inside the reactor.
    When we look at it in our laboratory must wear a 14 grade eye protection.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  3. Steve swatman

    Dr Rossi,
    May I inquire, are what point or during which period of production you expect your partner(s) to come forward and reveal themselves and their part in the future of the E-cat saga to the world at large?

    I expect that when this happens it will shake the foundations of worldwide power production and create tremendous excitement within the world finance markets.

    regards

  4. Andrea Rossi

    Steve Swatman:
    This will ot depend on me.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  5. JJ

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    I watched the full video of your Stockholm presentation of the Ecat QX: very convincing.
    Godspeed,
    JJ

  6. Andrea Rossi

    JJ:
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  7. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “No. It is necessary an eye protection index 14. Looking at it even for seconds can cause severe damages to the eyes.”

    Is that because of the ultraviolet spectral content or for another reason?

  8. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    The issue is more complex and it is confidential,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  9. Eugenio Mieli

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I propose again an old, but always useful question: considering the many variables you must consider and consequently the difficulty in being precise in predictions, may you now make an updated schedule of upcoming major deadlines in the long road of E-Cat?

    I’m sure that on certain issues you will be forced to repeat yourself, but I think it is interesting to have an overall timing pattern that reflects your feelings today.

    Thanks,

    Eugenio

  10. Andrea Rossi

    Eugenio Mieli:
    Our business plan is complex.
    Anyway the first milestone is the presentation of the industrialized product that I still hope to be able to make in this year.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  11. Dr. Rossi Plasma, this sounds very dangerous to me. In an accident could the plasma be exposed to unprotected eyes ?
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
    USA

  12. Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto,
    It is impossibke to expose the eyes to the plasma, because it is inside the reactor: see the Stockholm video of the Ecat QX demo.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  13. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi:
    Is it possible to look at the plasma made in the Ecat with direct sight?

  14. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    No. It is necessary an eye protection index 14. Looking at it even for seconds can cause severe damages to the eyes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  15. Michelangelo De Meo

    April 10: US Navy recognized technological potential of radiation-free ultralow energy neutron reactions (LENRs) by awarding 2nd prize in 3rd-annual NAVSEA-Leidos disruptive technology essay contest to paper re future use of LENRs in naval power generation – see image & caption

    https://twitter.com/lewisglarsen/status/987351188801773570/photo/1?ref_src=t

  16. Andrea Rossi

    Michelangelo De Meo:
    Thank you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  17. Michelangelo De Meo

    Dr Alexander Parkhomov produced a program that looked at all of the stable element isotopes and calculated nucleon exchange reactions and fission reactions that lead to stable products with a net energy yield.

    It took 10 days to calculate the more than 500,000 possible outcomes and their respective energy output.

    Dr. Alexander Parkhomov agreed to sharing his nucleon exchange / Fusion+Fission table which can be downloaded from the following link

    https://goo.gl/91fQVX

    A HUGE thankyou for his hard work and openness.

    He adds:

    “I believe that making it public will be useful for the development of LENR research. It is also useful to have a public program that allows the consideration of combinations of not only two nuclides, but also a larger number.”

    It the latter part of the sentence, he is recognising that the table as provided is only the first step and that knowing what a larger number of interacting nucleus would result in would be helpful. Due to the vast computational requirements akin to hash code breaking, distributed computing with a common database might be a way forward.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IDgybzJ8Ryk&feature=youtu.be

  18. Andrea Rossi

    Michelangelo De Meo:
    Thank you for the link.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  19. Jaroslaw Bem

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Your answer to Raffaele Bongo:
    “I do not choose the T: it is the T that comes out of the process as the Ecat is made now”
    Does that mean that different processes occur in module E-Cat QX 80 W and module E-Cat SK 10 kW?

    Best regards,
    Jaroslaw Bem

  20. Andrea Rossi

    Jaroslaw Bem:
    No, it does mean that we are more capable to control the process. We are working very hard and investing heavily to reach our target.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  21. Prof

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Dr Alexander Parkhomov has made again a very good work of replication and experimentation after your effect: see here
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IDgybzJ8Ryk&feature=youtu.be
    Dr Alexander Parkhomov’s Fusion Fission table overview

  22. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Dr Alexander Parkhomov has made years of magnificent scientific work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  23. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello A. Rossi

    During my last message I probably mispelled my question. I was wondering what are the likely significant benefits of running the quark 1 ev against ¼ ev?
    All my support for your great team.

    cordially

    Raffaele

  24. Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    I do not choose the T: it is the T that comes out of the process as the Ecat is made now.
    In general, a higher T makes wider and more efficient the field of applications.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  25. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted that the equivalent temperature of 1 eV is 12,500 K. Please check and see if my Physics is correct?

    1 eV = 1.602… x 10**-19 J — (one electron charge moving through a potential of 1 Volt)

    Boltzmann’s constant is 1.38065… x 10**-23 J / K

    So the equivalent temperature of 1 eV is:

    1.602 … x 1-**-19 J / 1.38065… x 10+++-23 J/K = 11,604.5… K.

    So should not the equivalent temperature of 1eV be 11,604.5K?

    Note: this is the equivalent temperature, not the actual operating temperature.

  26. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Yes, the equivalent T of 1 eV is 11,604.52 K
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  27. Physics Prof

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    I watched the video of the November 24th Stockholm Ecat presentation.
    As an expert of the matter, I can confirm that your application of the Wien and Boltzmann equations to calculate the energy of the plasma in the Ecat is correct.
    Godspeed,
    Physics Prof

  28. Andrea Rossi

    Physics Prof:
    Thank you for your attention to our work,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  29. Anonymous

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Now that you have resolved the problem of the overheating of the circuitry of the Ecat QX, is the COP higher?

  30. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    No. What has improved is the reliability.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  31. Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    On the Journal of Nuclear Physics has been published the paper “The Interactions of Acoustic Phonons and Photons in the Solid State”, by Ian Douglas Winters, Bachelor of Science in Material Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  32. Mario

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    I understand that you produce very high energy in very small space: did you find the right heat exchanger in the market, or had you to design a new one?

  33. Andrea Rossi

    Mario:
    We had to design it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  34. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello A. Rossi

    You had to overcome enormous difficulties to move from an operating temperature of 2700 K to 12700 K. I suppose that these very difficult changes are aimed at improving the performance of the reactor. I have a hard time imagining that one can reach such temperature without confinement.
    Can you tell us a few words about these new performances of the reactor?

    All my support for your entire team
    Best regards

    Raffaele

  35. Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    Thank you for your kind attention to our work.
    About how the heat is exchanged, it is confidential.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  36. Ernest

    Dr Rossi:
    Still on schedule to introduce in the market the Ecat QX within the end of the year?

  37. Andrea Rossi

    Ernest:
    I still have this hope.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  38. Daniel

    Dear Andrea,
    Watching the video of the full demo you made in Stockholm on November 24th with the Ecat QX, I saw that when you calculate the temperature of the plasma by the Wien equation and eventually you calculate the energy by the Boltzmann equation you consider the plasma to be a black body and consequently you apply the value 1 to the epsilon (emissivity).
    Is that correct?

  39. Andrea Rossi

    Daniel:
    Theoretically the plasma is a perfect black body, but since a perfect black body is not supposed to exist, we calculate epsilon= 0.9
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  40. Fighter

    So, if I have correctly understood, the hot fusion is more “impossible” than the LENR. At least from your point of view. Correct?

  41. Andrea Rossi

    Fighter:
    Correct.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  42. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Also: 1 electron-volt = 11,604.52500617 Kelvin

  43. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    1- In my comment I made a typo with a consequent error, obviously K= C + 273, not the other way. Corrected.
    2- 1 eV= 12 500 C degrees, then 1 eV = 12 500 + 273 = 12 773 K
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  44. Maja Berken

    Dear Andrea,
    Thank you for your answer to the magnificent comment of Beata Chowen.
    Don’t you think Prof Marica Branchesi should be more shown and interviewed by the media, to make her inspiring figure be more widespread?
    Cheers,
    Maja

  45. Andrea Rossi

    Maja Berken:
    Yes, I do.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  46. Beata Chowen

    The Astrophysicist Prof Marica Branchesi has been recognized between the 100 persons most important of the world.
    She is a Prof of the Gran Sasso labs of the INFN and works on the observation and the instrumental development to understand the gravitational waves utilizing multiple data sources.

  47. Andrea Rossi

    Beata Chowen:
    I am glad to apprehend this, not only for the importance of the scientific achievement, but also for the inspiring model that Prof Marica Branchesi offers to the future women.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  48. Bill Tufts

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi, Dear Readers of the JoNP,
    Today is the Earth Day: let us hope it is be the Earthday of the year in which the Ecat QX enters the market!
    Godspeed,
    Bill

  49. Andrea Rossi

    Bill Tufts:
    Thank you for reminding us this recurrence,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  50. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea,

    12,500 Celsius = 12,773.15 Kelvin

  51. Prof

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    What impresses of the video of the Stockholm demo of the Ecat QX is the number of so high level Professors that have observed the set up closely during all the test, approaching the Ecat and observing all the particulars of the Ecat and of the measurements.

  52. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    It has been a so big honour for all us of the Ecat Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  53. Tom Conover

    Dear Andrea,

    The article from Aftenposten may require from some users a subscription to access it from your link on ECAT.com/news. Workaround shown below.

    Great work from the team, thanks to all of you!

    Respectfully yours,

    Tom
    Works but bypasses aftenposten’s subscription advertisement:
    https://www.fvn.no/digital/Unknown-energy-source-with-enormous-potential-10899b.html

    (Won’t allow reading without required subscription)
    https://www.aftenposten.no/digital/Unknown-energy-source-with-enormous-potential-10899b.html

    Totally legal method shown below:
    Google search words: “Unknown energy source with enormous potential” AND click the first link.
    Even on google, if you copy and paste the link to a new tab instead of clicking the article in their list, it goes to a subscription notice – so it requires entry through google.com directly, or the alternative work around shown above.

  54. Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    Thank you for the suggestions, but when I go to Ecat.com and click NEWS and then click on the link to Aftenposten, I can read the article of Kristian Bjorkeng without any problem!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  55. Eike

    When do you think we will be able to see in operation the Ecat SK?

  56. Andrea Rossi

    Eike:
    I hope within the year 2019.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  57. Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    About the comment of Jean, the link to article of Per Kristian Bjorkeng on the Aftenposten can be found on http://www.ecat.com selecting “NEWS”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  58. Anonymous

    Dear Andrea:
    When the temperarture is measured in eV the conversion is in Celsius degrees or in Kelvin?

  59. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    1 eV can be converted, obviously, either in Celsius degrees or in Kelvin. 1 eV= 12 500 Celsius degrees and 1 eV= 12 773 K, albeit when you measure a T in eV the difference between the two scales is not as relevant as it normally is.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  60. Jean

    @Abe Vincent:
    I totally agree with you. Being a nuclear engineer, I too was a sceptic, but the video of the demonstration of the Ecat QX made at the IVA of Stockholm has been very convincing.
    Impossible to ignore the precision of the measurement of the flowrate, the diagram of the oscolloscope with the measurement of voltage and the unipolarity of the current across the resistance of 1 Ohm, the measurements of the dummies and of the calorimetry made by neutral engineers. The team of Rossi has made a masterpiece, giving evidence of the enormous potential of this new source of energy, as written by Per Kristian Bjorkeng on the Aftenposten, the major newspaper of Norway.

  61. Abe Vincent

    ​Dear Mr Rossi, Thank you for the convincing demonstration in Stockholm. I wasn’t convinced before the demo, but after seeing the 6min video I was definitely convinced. The measurements of the output power of the reactor was particularly convincing.

  62. Andrea Rossi

    Abe Vincent:
    Thank you: I appreciate your attention to our work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    P.S.
    For the Readers: the link can be found either googling “youtube summary of the ecat demo of Stockholm Nov 24 2017” or on http://www.ecat.com

  63. Sandro

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    I bought by Amazon the book of Vessela Nikolova ‘Ecat the new fire’.
    Do you confirm that what is written in that book is true?
    All the best,
    Sandro

  64. Andrea Rossi

    Sandro:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  65. Chuck Davis

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Google “Popular Science New Alloy Can Convert Heat Into Electricity”
    Cheers
    Chuck Davis

  66. Andrea Rossi

    Chuck Davis:
    Thank you for the link. It is another thermoelectric device, working with the Seebeck Effect. Due to the experimental status it is too soon to know if it has enough efficiency. I have a big experience in the field, because I worked very much in it also for the DOE in the nineties and made a patent in the USA with Leonardo Technology Incorporated. But what I experienced is that when you make by your hands a prototype ( very expensive ) you get a good efficiency, but you have to spend hours and hours with the directional fusion, necessary to achieve a geometry that puts in line the atoms; when you, for necessary economical reasons, pass to a bulk production and you have to speed up the directional fusion of all the components of the alloy, whatever it is, the efficiency drops dramatically.
    We’ll see: if they have resolved this problem, that I have not been able to resolve, this is a good fiance’ for the Ecat, for obvious reasons.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  67. WaltC

    Dear Andrea,
    Thanks for the clarification– so in the case of “Carnot cycle is made by steam that makes a turbine turn a magnet inside a copper coil”, let me rephrase my question:

    1) Do you plan to build that device yourself?
    2) Or, have you found a supplier for such a device, either for Research purposes or for Commercial operation?
    3) Or if not, are you currently looking for such a device?

    And– I apologize for what must be an odd sounding question:

    4) Am I wrong to think of this device as an external heat source (steam) that powers an Engine (turbine) that then drives a generator?

    thanks again,
    WaltC

  68. Andrea Rossi

    WaltC:
    1- no
    2- the Carnot cycle components are well known and on the traditional market
    3- no, we will make steam, then our Customers will use the steam to do what they want, as, for example, electricity my means of the Carnot cycle
    4- you are not wrong
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  69. Anonymous

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Can you say if the Ecat SK of 10/100 kW has a hope to arrive in the industrial market before the hot fusion?

  70. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Thank you for your opinion
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  71. WaltC

    Dear Andrea,
    You mention using the Carnot cycle to produce electricity– presumably based on an engine that can operate from an external heat source– have you found a supplier for such a device, either for Research purposes or for Commercial operation?
    If not, are you currently looking?

    thanks,
    WaltC

  72. Andrea Rossi

    WaltC:
    No, in our case the Carnot cycle is made by steam that makes a turbine turn a magnet inside a copper coil.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  73. Dummy Physicist

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    How can the Ecat QX sustain a temperature of 1 eV? Is it not the same T of a hot fusion ?
    Thank you if you can answer,
    Dummy Physicist

  74. Andrea Rossi

    Dummy Physicist:
    Hot fusion temperature in a plant like the one ENEA has invested in is above 12 keV ( more than 150 000 000 – say onehundredfiftymillions- of Celsius degrees ).
    To maintain stable magnetic fields at this temperature is more difficult than allow an elephant pass through a needle eye. Non maintaining a stable magnetic field in a plant like that means not just melt, but vaporize any kind of material or alloy exposed to such a radiation in matter of fractions of second, making happy a lot of people around. But the good news for the “financers”, funded by the taxpayer, are that all this stuff justifies any kind of expense without bids and without control, because nobody understands what they are buying and why… not that it counts too much, though.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  75. Rita

    @Aninumous of the comment 2018/04/19 at 7.52 PM: you are an imbecile. Even if Andrea Rossi will delay, it will be anyway a masterpiece, made by his own money. Compare to the “work” of the hot fusion, that is stealing money of the taxpayer by the billions since more than 50 years and the sole thing they produced is the request of more money, without any serious accounting control, like what happened few days ago with ENEA, that is wasting 50 millions to make the usual nothing they make.
    You know why these smartasses can continue this clownerie? Because of imbeciles like you, that look at the straws not seeing the pillars.
    Rita

  76. Andrea Rossi

    Rita:
    He spoke his opinion: ” I do not agree with you, but I will give my life to allow you to speak your opinion”
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  77. Rupert

    I googled “Ecat QX video of the November 24th demo in Stockholm”
    Fantastic, well done, it seems to be there during the whole convincing presentation of the Ecat QX
    Thank you for this magnificence
    Rupert

  78. Andrea Rossi

    Rupert:
    Thank you for your attention to our work,
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  79. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello A. Rossi

    I understood that a quark X operated at a temperature of 2700 ° k. Now it seems that this temperature is 1 EV which is totally different.
    Have you made any improvements to the reactor, or have the control system parameters changed?
    With such temperatures can you explain how you measure fire risk?
    All my support for your team
    Your supporter

    Raffaele

  80. Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    The system has been totally changed.
    The particulars are confidential.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  81. Bobby Ellery

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Are you still keeping your hands dirt making tests and prototypes, or now you leave this part to others of your team?
    Godspeed, Bobby

  82. Andrea Rossi

    Bobby Ellery:
    I still need to wash my hands many times a day.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  83. Pietro

    Bentrovato sig. Rossi,

    la seguo ormai da anni
    una domanda, da chi poco capisce di fisica,

    mi puo’ spiegare, in parole molto povere, se sia possibile collegare un ecat ad una turbina e produrre più elettricita di quanto ne consumi, e, se non fosse possibile, il motivo.

    Grazie e buona salute

    Pietro

  84. Andrea Rossi

    Pietro:
    It is possible, by means of the Carnot cycle.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  85. Bernard

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I enjoyed the video on Google of the Stockholm demo at the IVA and I am grateful for the openness of this very convincing test.
    Thank you,
    Bernard

  86. Andrea Rossi

    Bernard:
    Thank you for your attention to our work,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  87. Elena

    You said in a recent comment that in your team there are women at high level: can you give us examples of their duties?

  88. Andrea Rossi

    Elena:
    CFO, physicist
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  89. Jeremy Cobane

    Dear Andrea,
    Do you think that the weak force can be involved in LENR phenomenons?

  90. Andrea Rossi

    Jeremy Cobane:
    No, because weak forces would emit much stronger radiations.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  91. Anonymous

    Do you think that hospitals could use the Ecat to generate heat?

  92. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    I think so, but it has to be clarified if the safety certification we have for industrial applications is valid also for hospitals.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  93. Anonymous

    I did bet one thousand Euro that you will not succeed to start the sales of the industrial Ecat QX within the year 2018.

  94. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    This is easy: YESSS !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  95. Prof

    Do you confirm that the temperature of the core of the Ecat QX is higher than 1 eV?
    Cheers
    Prof

  96. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    I confirm,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  97. Albert Ellul

    The promise of (hot) fusion energy is one of the biggest scams ever.50 years ago scientists had described nuclear fusion energy as the energy of the future, and in a way they were correct, because it will always be the energy of the future. After 50 years of sucking up billions of tax dollars, hot fusion is still cold and the truth is that it will take another 50 years for the first nuclear reactor to go on stream.

    Meanwhile cold fusion is getting hot thanks to you Andrea Rossi. Looking forward for the first E-Cat QX to roll out of the robotic line, hopefully this year, but 2019 will be OK too.

  98. Andrea Rossi

    Albert Ellul:
    Thank you for your opinion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  99. Italian Taxpayer

    Dear Andrea:
    The ENEA 500 millions investments in the hot fusion is the usual fraud to the taxpayers: ENEA in 38 years of existence has spent billions in totally useless R&D. It has produced nothing, not a single patent that has been turned into a real manufacturing. It has been born in 1980 to park the sons of the ENI managers that could not be placed in ENI because not able to perform a real work .
    Now these 500 millions that the Italian taxpayer has been minted of will produce nothing, along the tradition of this totally useless entity named ENEA. Where the money they got is gone is a “mistery”.
    IT (Italian Taxpayer)

  100. Andrea Rossi

    Italian Taxpayer:
    Thank you for your opinion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  101. Harvey

    Dear Andrea,
    While I recognize that your efforts are predominately focused on the Ecat QX development to achieve first production in this year. However, there are undoubtedly many other issues requiring your attention to achieve this goal. If it is not confidential, can you please advise on the progress in the development of the US manufacturing facility?
    1. Has physical work commenced on the construction and installation of manufacturing equipment?
    2. Do you feel that the US plant will be able to perform a pre-production run by the end of the third quarter of this year?
    3. What do you consider to be the most significant obstacle in getting the plant on line this year?
    4. Are you able to disclose the state in which the plant is located?
    5. What is the planned annual production capacity after the plant is fully on line?
    6. Will this plant be used only for US markets or will it also ship to global clients?
    I hope you are also able to find other domestic and international venues to satisfy the immense demands that already exist.
    Thanks for the intensely hard work by you and all of your team.
    Harvey

  102. Andrea Rossi

    Harvey:
    1- not yet
    2- no
    3- unforseen obstacles ( “dark obstacles” )
    4- no
    5- n.a.
    6- will also ship abroad
    Thank you for your attention to our work
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  103. Ugo

    Dear Andrea:
    Do you have some activity of yours left in Italy, related or not to the Ecat?
    Cheers,
    Ugo

  104. Andrea Rossi

    Ugo:
    No.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  105. Paolo

    Dear Andrea,
    I hope you are still well, even in this period of strong pressure.
    Look at this link:
    http://e-catworld.com/2018/04/18/italy-invests-500-million-euros-in-hot-fusion-research-enea/
    As usual, this big money coming from the taxpayer will be wasted: I hope you will be enough fast to save this waste of money.
    May God help you in your so difficult job,
    Paolo

  106. Andrea Rossi

    Paolo:
    Thank you for the link. It starts with a lie: Tokamak is not a patent of ENEA and this R&D is going on about half century since, as an R&D made by the European community; it already costed tens of billions without positive results so far.
    Any further comment is fairly useless, but, as I always said, all the potential energy sources can and must be integrated.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  107. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello Andréa Rossi

    Is there a significant difference in mass between the high power reactor (100 Kw) and the small reactor (40 W) or is it only the parameters of the control system that are different?
    Thank you for your answers to our questions
    All my support and encouragement
    Your supporter

    Raffaele

  108. Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    Good question: there is a difference, but not proportional. The weight/kW id much less in the bigger reactors. In other words, the power density is much higher.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  109. Cardano

    Dr Rossi,

    * Green Bitcoin mining is huge now and growing.

    http://bitcoinist.com/bitcoin-miners-cutting-costs-by-going-green/

    * Bitcoin News Link:

    https://news.bitcoin.com/

  110. Andrea Rossi

    Cardano:
    I already said what I think about this issue.
    Thank you anyway for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  111. Tiberio

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Regarding the heater of Viessmann that makes the cogeneration with the Stirling engine, did you get information useful to the Ecat technology?

  112. Andrea Rossi

    Tiberio:
    Yes, I got the due information. They severed the production line of the heaters coupled with Stirling engines to make cogeneration. It has not been possible to collect information about the real reasons. Officially they say that it happened because of new restrictions of regulations related to the emissions, but this sounds strange to me, because the Stirling engine does not affect the pollutants in the emissions of a gas burner.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  113. Svein Henrik

    Dear Andrea.
    I wonder, how many OEM‘s is contacting you every week in seek for information of the possibilities the Ecat may represent as a heat source in their product?
    And how many companies using heat in their manufacturing are asking for information’s?

    Warm Regards, Svein Henrik.

  114. Andrea Rossi

    Svein Henrik:
    Enough.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    P.S.
    I have a pending NDA with all the contacts with potential Customers, therefore I cannot refer to any of them in positive or in negative. This will remain always our policy.

  115. Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi, Elon Musk has trouble producing large quantities of his Tesla model 3 cars because he says that there are too many robots slowing down the production.
    He says that inserting more men in place of robots could increase production.
    Do you think that a similar problem may also occur in your case?

    Kind regards,

    Italo R.

  116. Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    I never criticize the work of others. I cannot make observations about a problem I do not know. If you are asking if I too can make mistakes, the answer is yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  117. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Is it worthwhile for you to get an industrial product into the market as soon as possible, even if it may soon be replaced by superior models that you have in R&D?

    Best wishes,

    Frank Acland

  118. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Ask General Motors the same question.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  119. G

    Dear Andrea,
    Googling ” Youtube Ecat QX demonstration at the IVA of Stockholm” i found the magnificent video with the 3 hours of demo. Question: the measurement with the spectrometer has not been possible because of the light emitted by the big screen wherein the spectrometry diagram was visible. Do you normally use the spectrometer to measure the temperatures of the plasma?

  120. Andrea Rossi

    G:
    Yes, it is the sole way to measure the temperature of the plasma body. There are not thermometers that can work above the melting point of platinum and rhodium. We reach T well above 1 eV.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  121. Isabel

    Dear Andrea Rossi:
    Is the module of the Ecat SK with a power of 10/100 kW improving, or you are stuck in the mud of the difficulties and have not time for it because you are focused on the 100- 1000 W Ecat QX?

  122. Andrea Rossi

    Isabel:
    We are working on all the line, but the main focus is on the prototype that has best odds to be ready within this year.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  123. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    If you can say, was the contract you signed in Chicago connected with the US global food company you had mentioned?

    Thank you,

    Frank Acland

  124. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    I am under NDA.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  125. Buck

    Good Day Andrea:

    I read with some interest on you visit to Chicago.
    Presuming you signed a contract with your global customer, is your customer on the following list?
    Link>> https://www.luc.edu/law/career/practice_areas/publically_held.html

    My best to you and your team,

    Buck

  126. Andrea Rossi

    Buck:
    The name is global, but I cannot answer in positive or in negative, because I am under NDA. Obviously with a series of lists, by exclusion, it would be easy to individuate the name.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  127. Daren

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Yesterday a friend of mine has spotted you at the airport of Chicago: was that person really you? Can I ask if your concern or partner is in Chicago?

  128. Andrea Rossi

    Daren:
    He,he,he…yes, I was in Chicago yesterday to sign a contract.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  129. Giovanni

    Andrea,
    About the superficial comment of Irka: you are making a work that without you could never happen. If there is a person in the worls that can accomplish the mission to bring in the markat this product, this person is you sustained by your magnificent team.
    Thank you for what you are doing and for dedicating your life to it.
    Giovanni

  130. Andrea Rossi

    Giovanni:
    Irka has expressed an opinion, nothing wrong with this fact.
    Thank you for your kind attention to our work,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  131. Alexis

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    I watched on http://www.ecat.com all the three links to the event of Stockholm for the presentation at the IVA of the Ecat QX. Very impressive and very convincing.
    Now I hope your enormous work will soon end up with the introduction of a product for sale.
    Godspeed,
    Alexis

  132. Andrea Rossi

    Alexis:
    Thank you, we are working hard on it,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  133. Ulrich W.A. Kranz

    Dear Andrea,
    In Israel a company claims to be able to hack a computer not connected to the internet, via a power connection, but it has to be infected by a virus before.
    I wish you a fast success with the Ecat SK 10/100,
    Ulrich W.A. Kranz

  134. Andrea Rossi

    Ulrich W.A.Kranz:
    I know it is possible. In fact the computers I use for IP never have seen a plug in their life.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  135. Andrea Rossi

    Irka:
    Thank you for your opinion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  136. Elias

    Dear Dr Rossi:
    I googled: ‘Youtube ecat Stockholm test of the ecat qx’ and found the magnificent video of the whole test.
    Thank you for your work.
    Elias

  137. Andrea Rossi

    Elias:
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  138. Yrka

    I bow to your genius!
    But!
    Progress should move young. You need a young, energetic, courageous person who does not follow the old rules, but creates new rules! Sorry, but you, like an old grandmother, are laying out brand new threads and needles on old pots.
    Sorry, I understand everything, I’m not young myself, it’s the costs of wisdom and experience.
    You need a battering ram that will break the old system and create a new one, and not try to stick the Autopilot into the horse cart.
    Sorry again for your emotionality.
    Thank you for your work!

    Yuriy Isaev
    Engineer
    Tyumen, Russia

  139. Anonymous

    Did you control the radiations emitted by the Ecat QX during the Stockholm demo of November 24th?

  140. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Good luck!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  141. Joleen Plateros

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    As we can understand from your comments, the 80 W Ecat QX module is ready, or close, and its industrialization will be not impossible within the year 2018; the 1 kW module is still pending, while the SK of 10/100 kW are in early R&D stage. Did I understand well?
    Godspeed,
    JP

  142. Andrea Rossi

    Joleen Plateros:
    I think you are not distant from reality.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  143. Goran

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    What does mean ‘strangeness’ in Physics?
    Thank you if you can answer,
    Goran

  144. Andrea Rossi

    Goran:
    Strangeness is given by mass and emilife respectively bigger and longer than normal. It is always conserved, except in the weak interactions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  145. Wade Grotzinger

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    About Viessmann: I have spoken with an engineer of Viessmann and he told me they could apply the Ecat to their products.
    Do you think this could happen?
    Wade

  146. Andrea Rossi

    Wade Grotzinger:
    This is interesting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  147. Bobby

    Andrea,
    What do you think of the Weissmann heater that makes the cogeneration with a Stirling engine published here in the comment of Luca Galli 2018/04/12 at 2.29 PM?
    Thanks if you can answer,
    Bobby

  148. Andrea Rossi

    Bobby:
    It is a very intelligent product, that makes efficiency close to 100%. I like the way they realized the Stirling engine, very compact and cheap. Congratulations.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  149. Elenor

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Are there women in the Leonardo team and with which role?

  150. Andrea Rossi

    Elenor:
    Yes, at the highest level.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  151. Fox

    Dear Rossi
    Are you a physicist or a philosopher?
    I am a philosophical physicist and I am convinced that we do not even know a millionth of the reality that surrounds us.
    You are discovering another little piece called LENR
    With love
    Fox

  152. Andrea Rossi

    Fox:
    With a small editing, I would cite the statement Plato wrote Socrates said: ” The sole thing I know is that I do not know enough of both” ( the editing consists in adding “enough of both” ).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  153. Gerald Belfort

    Dear Andrea:
    Do you suffer of anxiety in this difficult period and, if yes, how do you menage it?

  154. Andrea Rossi

    Gerald Belfort:
    Yes, I suffer of anxiety: time passes too fast and every hour I calculate if I am in time. Weeks seem to be days, months seem to be weeks, so fast they elapse. I am not managing it, just I have to stand anxiety. The work to do is huge.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  155. Giorgio

    Dear Andrea,
    in a discussion with friends I sustained that obviously elementary particles with a small mass, not having air inside, are smaller than elementary particles with a bigger mass: am I right?
    Cheers,
    Giorgio

  156. Andrea Rossi

    Giorgio:
    Sorry, you are wrong. Elementary particles are waves quantistically defined. The size of a wave is given by its lambda ( wave length ). From lambda depends also the energy and a shorter lambda makes the e.p. need more energy, because it has less time to complete its sinusoid, so you can say that the shorter the lambda, the higher the energy. From E=mc^2, we know that mass is a form of energy: for this reason, the shorter the dimension, the higher the mass: exactly the contrary of what you said. To give you solace, though, I can tell you quantum physics is counter-intuitive. For example, when your mind sees waves you would watch particles.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  157. Sean

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Can you say what are you doing in particular today, if you are working?
    Thanks if you can answer,
    Sean

  158. Andrea Rossi

    Sean:
    In this very moment I am working on the SK project.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  159. Teacher

    Dear Dr Rossi:
    About the issue raised by Chuck Davis: will it be possible for a college to buy an Ecat for educational purposes?

  160. Andrea Rossi

    Teacher:
    Presently the safety certifications allow us to install the Ecats in industrial concerns. It is necessary to specify in which kind of laboratory the Ecat would be installed: it is a safety issue. Obviously in a lab where there are the same safety structures as in an industry, there is a possibility to have the necessary authorizations. I think that specific considerations will have to be done in this field.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  161. Chuck Davis

    Dear Andrea,
    Do you have any expectation about how long it make take to complete the certification of the domestic Ecat?
    Chuck Davis

  162. Andrea Rossi

    Chuck Davis:
    Not before the diffusion of the industrial plants in the market.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  163. Jane

    Looking for a great time, when your Ecat QX will develop all the potential I understood watching the video of the Stockholm event of November 24. I watched on http://www.ecat.com both the complete video of 3 hours and the summary of 6 minutes: very impressing the ability of your IT guy to put in the 6 minutes summary all the essential you need to know.
    Godspeed,
    Jane

  164. Andrea Rossi

    Jane:
    Thank you: we worked a lot to make a short version that in max 6 min could say all there was to say. It was not easy.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  165. P

    Hello Andrea!
    I really hope you succeed.
    Regarding electricity and Stirling, I think Inresol AB is a good alternative. The Swedes have a long experience in this technology and have many spin-offs from Kockum’s submarine production.
    http://www.inresol.se/
    https://youtu.be/CIkE6eDRTiA
    https://www.nyteknik.se/automation/inresol-varvar-upp-200-ar-gammal-stirlingteknik-6903616

  166. Andrea Rossi

    P:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  167. Luca Galli

    Hi Dr Rossi:
    Is the electricity production still under focus?
    If yes, please take a look to this link about the use of the Stirling motor:
    https://www.viessmann.it/it/riscaldamento-casa/miglior_sistema_di_riscaldamento/cogenerazione.html
    Real Congratulations for your job,
    Luca

  168. Andrea Rossi

    Luca Galli:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  169. Joella

    Dear Andrea:
    I strongly appreciated the 6 minutes summary of the Event of the demonstration of the Ecat QX on Stockholm on November 24th. Extremely interesting the cameo about the theory.
    It will be very interesting to read about the follow up of it.
    All the best,
    Jo

  170. Andrea Rossi

    Joella:
    Thank you for your attention to our work,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  171. WaltC

    Dear Andrea,
    I’m not very familiar with radiation detectors, nonetheless I am curious– since hot fusion scientists commonly believe there’s no fusion without neutrons:

    1) With respect to the radiation detectors you use, are they responsive also to Neutrons?
    2) Both high energy (e.g., fast) and low energy (e.g., thermal) Neutrons?

    Thanks,
    WaltC

  172. Andrea Rossi

    WaltC:
    We have made many times measurements with neutron detectors during our experiments and never found a relevant difference from the background, albeit we always found a difference in excess, but always within the margin of error of the instrumentation, which means no danger. Anyway, we always make the measurement with the Sievert counter, that measures the ionizing radiations and the ionizing radiations should be generated by neutron emissions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  173. Albert

    Dear Andrea,
    Do you still think you will be able to start the sales of the industrialized Ecat or its energy by the end of this year?

  174. Andrea Rossi

    Albert:
    So far, we are inside the scheduled timing.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  175. Miles Gleich

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Why did you not show the instrumentation to measure the radiations in microSievert during the Stockholm demo of the EcatQX?
    Thank you if you can answer,
    Miles

  176. Andrea Rossi

    Miles Gleich:
    Good point, I forgot to do it. For us it is absolutely normal to keep close a radiation detector when we work, so it is nothing we usually talk about.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  177. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello Andrea

    Are the SK 10 and 100 KW developments encouraging? This would probably reduce the volume and mass of the plants and thus be able to envisage applications in transport.

    Note: I live in France and I do not speak well the language of Shakespeare. In “former retired pensioner” I meant that I worked in the manufacture of concrete structures. Today I do not work anymore because I am too old.
    Your old supporter

    Raffaele

  178. Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    The R&D of the 10 and 100 kW modules is on course. It is too soon to express opinions about their reliability.
    Thank you for explaining your expression’s meaning,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  179. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Based on a structure defined as 30 feet in length with 8 foot height and 8 foot width, I would assume the following:

    a. Two sides approximately 2 feet in thickness with an internal 3 – 4 foot walkway between the two sides. So there would be a total of four surfaces: Left Side, exterior, Left side, interior, Right side, interior and Right side, exterior.

    b. Each side would contain 250 eCat 1kW units. It would likely be on a grid of 10 units vertically and 25 units horizontally.

    So horizontally, each eCat 1kW unit would be centered at about 14 inches, recall they are 10 inches wide.

    Vertically, each eCat 1kW unit would be 8.5 to 9.5 inches, recall each unit is about 7.2 inches in height.

    The difference in grid spacing and unit size would be for structural support, interconnections and piping, and access.

    Thoughts?

  180. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Yes, this is a possible configuration.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  181. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello Andrea

    The use of concrete and the manufacture of cement is very energy consuming, the required temperatures are of the order of 1450 ° C. Is it possible to consider E-Cat ovens for this industry that has a significant carbon footprint?
    A curious thing, we get to know the lifetime of the atoms of our solar system but no one has managed to date to determine the life of the concrete.

    Your supporter and former pensioner

    Raffaele

  182. Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    Yes, that too is a possible application.
    Thank you to be a nice supporter, but I do not understand ” former pensioner “: in which sense?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  183. Anonymous

    How are positioned now to start the sales within this year? Are the probabilities stable?

  184. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Yes, when we make tests we always measure the microSievert outside the Ecat and compare with the background.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  185. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “Plus the volume to have operative room, so that you need about a 30 ft container all included with the heat exchanger.”

    Could you please provide estimates of the other two dimensions for a 1MW thermal output unit?

  186. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    8′ x 8′
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  187. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    The US global food company you mention, have they verified for themselves the performance of the E-Cat QX, and are satisfied it could be useful to them?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  188. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    This will happen when we will be ready to start the sales of the product ready for industrialization.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  189. Tamal

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    when E-Cat hits the market, its not gonna be just very profitable – soon it might become a symbol of a contemporary lifestyle and of “modern, high tech, top notch” companies… therefore hard to get. Please consider reserving a “fast” production line for customers with just a few E-Cats in their bag.
    It’s exciting to watch and support your team on the way up, not so much having your final match seat taken over with a bag of money. After all your Cat has a ball to score with.

    Kind regards and best wishes,
    Tamal

  190. Andrea Rossi

    Tamal:
    Our goal is a wide diffusion of the Ecat.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  191. Regina

    Did you make any progress with the gas or jet engines?

  192. Andrea Rossi

    Regina:
    No
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  193. Jason Bagent

    Andrea:
    From the dimensions you said a 1 kW Ecat has volume of about 30 liters, so that an assembly of 1 MW needs a volume of 30 cubic meters: about 2.5 x 2.5 x 5 meters: correct?

  194. Andrea Rossi

    Jason Bagent:
    Plus the volume to have operative room, so that you need about a 30 ft container all included with the heat exchanger.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  195. Andy

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Can you explain why Bosons carry forces and Fermions do not in few words?

  196. Andrea Rossi

    Andy:
    Bosons do not respect the Pauli exclusion principle, therefore can pile up to reach big force in the same point at the same time: 2 Bosons occupy the same space at the same time as two trillion Bosons do. Fermions, on the contrary, respect the Pauli principle, therefore even two Fermions cannot be in the same point at the same time. This fact forbids Fermions to make up a force in the same place at the same time and consequently cannot break the Simmetry.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  197. Elliott Wilcher

    Dr Rossi:
    It is clear after your answers of yesterday that you are partnering with an important company in the food business. Can you say where is it located?

  198. Andrea Rossi

    Elliott Wilcher:
    It is a US global company.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  199. Jag bara undrar?

    If the e-cat can come up with any normal temperature in the industry. Then the cement industry must be interested and there sells / manufactures ABB control systems and more.

  200. Andrea Rossi

    Jag bara undrar?:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  201. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi:
    Where has been made all this work with the Ecat QX reported in the answer to Frank Acland of EW?

  202. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  203. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    I was interested your comment about the food industry being reactive to the E-Cat. It is a huge market that uses massive amounts of heat. Think of all the baking, boiling, heating, steaming, sterilizing, etc. that takes place in all kinds of food and drink processing plants.

    Here is one example, a Frito Lay factory for making potato chips: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ws_K9Cxs-uE

    Interesting they use co-generation in their plants — their natural gas powered deep fryers also generate electricity so the whole plant is off grid.

    What do you think about applying the heat of the E-Cat for plants like this?

    Best wishes,

    Frank Acland

  204. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    I think there will be important developments in the food industry sector related to the Ecat. Their strong need of heat to process their products makes them the ideal match for the Ecat. So the Ecat will say, like a poet: ” M’illumino di mensa”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  205. WaltC

    Dear Andrea,
    I have only a limited, intuitive, view of the Rossi/Gullstrom theory as currently proposed– so I’m on very thin ice– but my question relates to the “wave, anti-wave” portion: Borrowing from the concept in Quantum Mechanics of Wave-particle Duality,

    1) Is it possible that the “wave/anti-wave” aspect can also be thought of as “particle/anti-particle”?
    2) If so, what might the particle/anti-particle be?

    Thanks,
    WaltC

  206. Andrea Rossi

    WaltC:
    We are studying and experimenting about this and we are not ready for a publication, that is preliminary to any discussion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  207. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    From the information you have provided, do I understand that your early adopters will be able to build plants of any size by combining 1 kW E-Cat modules in parallel only (not in series)?

    Thank you,

    Frank Acland

  208. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  209. Stephen

    Dear Andrea Rossi.

    I understand that the heat transfer medium into and out of the Ecat Box could be a one of a number of different fluids at different pressures and starting temperature depending on the needs. I wonder if the maximum temperature at the out let is already defined?

    Is it currently limited to say high pressure steam at 100 deg C?
    Or could it be higher in the day 400 deg C
    Or perhaps at temperatures even above 1000 deg C?

    Obviously the heat capacity is probably the important factor for most uses initially but I’m curious if there is an upper limit to the temperature -as well.

    Would yo be able to give this kind information regarding the unit? Or is it something for later?

    Another curious question. You mention the over all box is plastic. But I wonder could it also be made of other materials such as metals or ceramics for uses in places where plastics might not be able to be used?

    Best Regards .

    Stephen

  210. Andrea Rossi

    Stephen:
    We can go up to any T used in the existing utilization in the world.
    The box could be made by any convenient material, but plastic is the lighter and the more cheap.
    Further details are premature.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  211. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You had posted that the dimensions of one 1kW eCat unit complete is 25cm x 25cm x 18cm. Let’s take a look at the implications of that sizing…

    For a 1MW thermal output system, you would need at least 1,000 eCat 1kW units.

    Within the USA, the maximum size of a unit being shipped is about 40 feet long, about 8 feet wide and about 8 feet high, assumes the interior of a large shipping trailer.

    A likely design would be a rack style with access to the individual units from the front and back. Allowing 1 foot (30cm) vertically between eCat units to allow for maintenance access means the maximum number of vertically stacked units is 8 — to keep the vertical size under 8 feet.

    To ship a iMW unit efficiently within such a shipping trailer, I assume 2 500kW units, combined after delivery to equal 1MW system, which, with tie-downs, would occupy the 8 foot trailer width.

    So each 500kW unit would be 8 feet in height (or less), be about 3 feet in width (2 eCat units plus room for plumbing, electrical and support structure) and would be about 32 feet in length.

    After the transportation was complete, the 2 500kW units could be connected, end-to-end, to form a 64 foot long, 8 feet high and 3 foot deep 1MW system, or two rows of 32 feet each and likely separated by 4 feet. Thoughts?

  212. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  213. Jack

    Congratulations for the summary video of 6 minutes of the Ecat QX-demo made in Stockholm on November 24th. It condensates all in short.
    Godspeed,
    Jack

  214. Andrea Rossi

    Jack:
    Thank you for your kind attention.
    For the Readers: please find the link to it on http://www.leonardocorporation.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  215. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello A. Rossi

    The manufacture of E-Cats 1 MW will generate energy consumption that is called in France “gray energy”. Have you evaluated this energy consumed per E-Cat unit and how long will it take for the machine to clear its energy debt?
    For example the voltaic dear to the ecologist must work a good decade to pay off its energy debt and provide the first KW useful and more if we take into account the decline in profitability over time.
    For the wind I’m afraid it’s the same

    All my consideration and all my support to your team.
    Best regards
    Your supporter

    Raffaele

  216. Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    You are correct. Not to mention the electric cars, about which has not been sufficiently calculated that the electricity they consume comes mainly from plugs that receive the electric energy from generators mainly fueled by hydrocarbons. I suspect that the global warming source, in this case, is not eliminated, but transferred from one place to another.
    In our case the grey energy, which is the energy necessary to produce out Ecat, is supposed to be irrelevant.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  217. Buck

    Good Afternoon Andrea:

    thank you for sharing about the 5Sigma testing of the 10kW and 100kW reactor modules. All I can say in response to what you appear to have shared is . . . . BRILLIANT ! ! !

    I believe this because of your opinion expressed to Martin Aubrey (see your April 7, 2018 at 2:47 PM post) that you see the joining of the reactors in series as being useless. For me this suggests one manner of how you intend to scale up the Ecat: when a customer wants a power output beyond what a 1kW can reasonably achieve, then the customer may upgrade, replacing the 1kW with a 10kW, and when needed a 10kW with a 100kW.

    This implies that the box as you have described it, is being specifically designed for this sort of progression, minimizing the footprint of the total purchased Ecat reactor, and enabling a smooth progression using your already proven ability to vary the actual power output of a single reactor from sub-1kW all the way up to 100kW.

    AGAIN, BRILLIANT . . . A customer may choose to be an early adopter, purchase an Ecat reactor to provide say 5% of the heat for an existing operating unit, design the necessary plumbing for the given unit, test the Ecat performance for 6-12-18 months, and upgrade the boxes to the desired new power output level with relatively little redesign of the necessary plumbing because the footprint hasn’t materially changed.

    Of course, if I have misunderstood please correct my error.

    my best regards,

    Buck

  218. Andrea Rossi

    Buck:
    Thank you for your attention toward our work. All these issues are in progress.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  219. Buck

    Good Morning Andrea:

    You shared with Frank an expectation that the 5Sigma testing on the 1kW reactor module should be completed by year-end.

    Are you also testing the 10kW and 100kW reactor modules within the 5Sigma discipline and when do you think that testing might be completed?

    my best regards,

    Buck

  220. Andrea Rossi

    Buck:
    yes I am and I hope to be ready with them within 2019.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R

  221. Mitch

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    I think that the food industry is the one that mostly can take advantage of your technology, what do you think?
    Mitch

  222. Andrea Rossi

    Mitch:
    Yes, I think that the food industry will be among the most reactive , at least initially.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  223. Dan C.

    Dear Andrea,

    I note those who talk of cascading. E-cat to E-cat,to E-cat.
    It occurs to me that once the power of an E-cat is used to power another E-cat, You have already reached the lowest common denominator. The cost of the fuel that provides the energy.

    To continue cascading would be like spending a dollar to save a penny. You’re a dollar ahead if you just keep that dollar in your pocket.

    Kind Regards,

    Dan C.

  224. Andrea Rossi

    Dan C.:
    Yes, the increase is logarythmic if the Ecats are at full power.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  225. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Do you expect to have Sigma 5 testing complete on the 1 kW E-Cat QX by the time you hope to go into production?

    Best regards,

    Frank Acland

  226. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  227. Buck

    Andrea,

    My apologies for not being clear about the benchmark used to determine payback period.

    Yes, purchasing/investing in an Ecat means that $$$ will be saved: the $$$ purchase of the customer’s original energy source will be avoided as the Ecat QX is now this customer’s new energy source. My question is this: what original energy source did you assume so as to determine the $$$ difference between original and Ecat energy?

    If you are unable to share because this information is too specific, then I understand and appreciate your position.

    my best regards,

    Buck

  228. Andrea Rossi

    Buck:
    Sorry for not having understood well at first attempt.
    The Ecat does not produce electric energy, it produces heat. Our Customers pay a certain bill to generate the heat they need to make whatever they produce. That is the term of comparison with the cost of our thermal energy. Example: our Customer spends 100 $ per hour to make the heat he needs. We make his heat at ,say, 10 $ per hour. This is the paradigma. What is the source from which his provider gets the energy is not our business, as well as it is not the business of our Client: our business is how much the Client pays to buy the energy from our competitor compared with how much he has to spend to use the Ecat. If his energy provider that competes against us gets his source energy from oil, wind, sun , cows and donkeys breath, you name it-you get it, this is not our business.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    P.S.
    The costs listed in your link are superficial. They do not take account of the difference between power and energy, which is between kW and kWh. The produced kWh are normally 1/4 of the theoretical kWh allowed by the kW of power, because the wind is not constant, as well as the sun. The real cost of the energy of windmills and PV cells is 4 times as bigger and couldn’t be sustained without the funds arriving from the taxpayer. The price paid for the energy made by the solar and wind generators is sustained by the green certificates that are paid by the taxpayer. So, this is a technology that depends on political will not on intrinsic competitivity.

  229. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted essentially the same operating characteristics between the 1kW single reactor unit and the one made up of 13 80W reactors. (A) Is there any benefit of one configuration over the other? (B) Cost? (C) Reliability? (D) Dynamic Output range? (E)If both perform identically well, would not the simpler unit be the natural choice?

  230. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N.Karels:
    The 80 W has completed the Sigma 5. The 1 kW did not yet. Therefore I am not able to answer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  231. Buck

    Good Day Andrea:

    this is to recognize and share an appreciation for your good mood as well as to ask for clarification.

    I am astounded at the rapid evolution of the Ecat from the days of Warm Cat and Hot Cat to the current Ecat QX with its 1kW singlet reactor in addition to the Ecat SK currently being assessed at its 10kW and 100kW singlet reactor power rating. It is no wonder you are in good mood.

    My request for clarification centers on your assertion of a better than 2-year payback period. What are you using as the benchmark source of energy your future customers are investing away from?

    I ask as it is becoming apparent that the LCOE (Levelized Cost of Energy) is rapidly changing due to changes in the costs for different technologies. See as a reference the linked Forbes article on current economic analysis; page 2 of the piece shares relevant LCOE comparisons. Can the upcoming Ecat QX clearly out-compete these lowest LCOE technologies?
    Link>> https://www.forbes.com/sites/mikescott/2018/04/03/power-shift-anything-coal-and-gas-can-do-renewables-and-energy-storage-can-do-cheaper/#3d255f1e300b

  232. Andrea Rossi

    Buck:
    To pay back in two years the plant means that the money saved to make that amount of energy in two years is more than the money spent for the plant.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  233. Dorie Carwile

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Will it be possible to command the Ecat plants in remote?

  234. Andrea Rossi

    Dorie Carwile:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  235. Jerome Ailor

    Dear Andrea:
    I know you play tennis with passion and you are a Physics student; I think tennis is a sport wherein a lot of Physics is involved: does this help you in one way or the other?
    Cheers
    Jerome

  236. Andrea Rossi

    Jerome Ailor:
    The results are not much encouraging in either way: I am experiencing a gravity field strong vibration, though ( or exchange of gravitons, if you prefer ), between the Earth and my feet, with gravitational waves rippling toward my legs. But this does not help.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  237. Martyn Aubrey

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    I have a few more questions about the Ecat-QX unit configuration, if you are able to answer.

    1. Can the output of one 1kW unit be connected to the input of a subsequent unit, forming a cascaded multi-stage heat amplifier?

    2. If so, is there a practical limit to the number of cascaded units?

    3. Have you tested this configuration yet?

    4. Do you think that the industrial plant will be made up of 1kW units connected serially and then some of these multi-unit cascades connected in parallel?

    Many Thanks again,

    Kind Regards,
    Martyn Aubrey

  238. Andrea Rossi

    Martyn Aubrey:
    1- yes
    2- it is an integral related to the flow
    3- no, because it is useless
    4- no, just parallels
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  239. Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    You said that the E-cat will pay itself back in two years. That sounds very good.
    I assume you did not include also replacement of one or two units and the work and sending cost for exchanging ‘recharged’ units? I am assuming this because to do that efficiently you would need a very efficient organization in each country, and that will take a while.
    Kind regards, Gerard

  240. Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:
    The payback of 2 years should be comprehensive of all.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  241. sam

    Hello Dr Rossi

    This is a video that gets a person thinking.

    https://youtu.be/5b9PssoJfLg

    Regards
    Sam

  242. Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    Thank you for the inspiring link. I agree with its content and I think that to assume everything has been made so harmonic casually is against the entropy law. This means that the faith in God has more rigorous scientific affinity than the Faith in Atheism, that has no proofs at all and is not subject to falsification in any situation; the disrespect of the entropy law, I think, is the strongest scientific proof against the gurus of the religion of atheists.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  243. Claud

    Dear Andrea, you mention a payback period for the e-cat, shorter than two years.
    You mean before or after the taxes that users pay for the power delivery ?

  244. Andrea Rossi

    Claud:
    After taxes, of course.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  245. Jim Rosenburg

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    A- is the 10 kW module being rested?
    B- is the 100 kW module being rested?
    C- is your partner assisting with these modules?
    Thank you,
    Jim

  246. Andrea Rossi

    Jim Rosenburg:
    A- no
    B- no
    C- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  247. Chuck Davis

    Dear Andrea,
    during the process of refueling will the customer remain out of service, or the issue has been assessed by a redundance of modules?

  248. Andrea Rossi

    Chuck Davis:
    The issue can be resolved with a redundance of modules or with a refueling scheduling that suits the Customer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  249. WaltC

    Dear Andrea,

    You indicated that the water/fluid flow is through a pair of pipe connectors– is it your plan that these pipes handle:
    1) High Pressure Steam (greater than 75 psig)?
    2) Medium Pressure Steam (16-75 psig)?
    3) Low Pressure Steam (below 16 psig)?
    4) Hot Water?

    Also, would this design work with other fluids, such as:
    5) oil?
    6) pressurized air?

    Thanks,
    WaltC

  250. Andrea Rossi

    WaltC:
    1,2,3,4: depending on the specific situation and design, every case is possible
    5,6: yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.